MJ vs Dr. EnQi Detox Challenge


The Michael Jackson vs Dr. EnQi Detox Challenge is simply a way for us to use our Platforms this Holy Day season to bring Social Awareness on Social Media to Health & Philanthropy PLEASE SUPPORT THE DETOX CHALLENGE BY SHARING THESE VIDEOS AND FOLLOWING THE HASHTAG THREAD #mjvsenqidetoxchallenge

Winners of the Challenge get $500 cash for funniest video anyone can enter by making a video about the “detox” or “dcck pllls” and writing @drenqirealcptsnnd #mjvsenqidetoxchallenge and anyone who participates in the voting on Christmas will be entered in the contest to win A Detox Kit, a Anti Viral Kit and 2 months supply of “dcck pllls” thanx and help us HELP YOU!!!!!

#ministerenqisaidit #enqisdetoxdotcom#bigfellasofcomedytour #bigfellasofcomedy @hahadavis @giovanni__enrique@invydatruth @313zeek @comicjwill@_aywhun @comedianbbarry1 @og_krispyk@comical_tee @devinkhari @robiiiworld@tattoomanpaige @jackpotthejuice@fatandpaid @dominique_danie@eastside_ivo @158age @dq4equis




Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen 101 by Dr. EnQi & Tone

Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen 

The basics are there, hydration.

Yes, you are going to be hydrated when you drink water loaded with Molecular Hydrogen and get a full round of minerals in your diet; that is to be expected. When you are thirsty and need a great way to give your body the water that it needs, this should be your first step. Problem, its almost unheard of and largely unavailable.

It will rehydrate your body and cells, allowing you to feel much better and to avoid the dangers of dehydration. Of course, Molecular Hydrogen does not stop there. It may be great for the basics, but it gives you much more than just that. While the hydration itself is great, and better than other options, another point of this is the weight loss. When taking Mommatomix and consuming medical grade Molecular Hydrogen, you will be able to lose weight healthily and more quickly than you could otherwise. This is a great addition to your life when you want to be healthier and look better as a whole. One huge benefit to this is how it is anti-aging and anti-inflammatory. This is huge for water and it is a great way to give your health and appearance the boost that it needs.

Molecular Hydrogen is Anti-Ageing Anti-Viral Anti-Bacterial all at the same time simply by being Anti-Fat!!!

Molecular Hydrogen produced by the Nexus Smart 9p water ionizer or produced with Mommatomix will help you to avoid dangers in the future along with annoyances with aging. As the years go by and life happens, you will be able to look beautiful and be healthy. While it can not protect you against everything, it does a great job and it is highly effective. Molecular Hydrogen is the fountain of youth because it is the foundation of Biochemistry and the foundation of Bioelectromagnetism & Charge. For those who may not know, too much acid forming elements can be bad for the body. Molecular Hydrogen & Mommatomix are the solutions to this problem. It will balance out your body so that it is not overly acidic. This will help you to be healthier in a way that other options can not offer, and in a way that is completely natural and healthy.

Molecular Hydrogen has many health benefits for our bodies however we need to maximize our mineral intake in order for the maximum effect to happen. Over 200 of the most basic Bio-Molecules are created and/or regulated by Molecular Hydrogen. When combined with the right types of minerlas via Mommatomix (hin hint lol) it will hydrate your body effectively and it will be good for you overall.

The taste of the Molecular Hydrogen Water is better than any other regular or tap water in the market. The Nexus Smart 9p Molecular Hydrogen Water Machine and/or Mommatomix can be purchased at Onetone.earth 

Almost 200 human disease models had been clinically demonstrated to benefit from Molecular Hydrogen and almost 1000 scientific articles have been written on Molecular Hydrogen. Good Bacteria work via Molecular Hydrogen and Infrared production for the body. The endoplasmic reticulum responsible for most protein production and folding does not function without optimal levels of Molecular Hydrogen. Molecular Hydrogen increase all of the major Antioxidant markers like SOD, GPx, Glutathione etc… Molecular Hydrogen is the gas in the engine of the NRF2 Antioxidant system and the most effective Mitochondrial Antioxidant you can incorporate into your diet or supplement regimen.

The biggest Major Break through which is why my Dad is the Greatest Of All Time is because Resveratrol as a plant based analoge for tyrosine up-regulates the Molecular Hydrogen pathway in exactly the way he predicted over 10 years ago. Get your Resveratrol from Histonic his brilliant formula that he couldn’t have completed without KT the Arch Degree.

Here’s a lil science to help you understand BioChemistry…

Hydrogen Reduces Oxygen Oxidizes. Its very general but it’ii help you with the coming information.

Molecular Hydrogen Intro by Dr. EnQi & Tone

Alkaline Water is a Fraud Molecular Hydrogen is the Truth

Water is life itself.

Molecular Hydrogen is a basic necessity to Living Biochemistry. All living organisms need Molecular Hydrogen in order to survive. For the proper functioning of the human body, water (Molecular Hydrogen) intake is essential, without water our system collapses. Some people are deprived of this precious gas that we can obtain just from our faucet in the comfort of our homes, while knowing that for others water is essential to be alive, but it is scarce.

Today it is well-known that our water is full of pollutants.

All the atmospheric releases of radioactive pollutants on the air, radiative rainfalls, smog, industrial waste in lakes, rivers, oceans and landfills, let our natural sources become a catastrophic disaster. All the chemical components and nuclear contaminants are reaching all the environments that are no longer natural or in harmony, poisoning our air, rain, glaciers, land, and water This results in a rise in world-wide health threats. There is a lot of information around Molecular Hydrogen and its properties, but in reality, we are not drinking safe and clean water. Our water no longer structures into H3O2 at a optimal rate and we are sick, DEHYDRATED. Dehydrated means lacking Molecular Hydrogen not lacking “water”. We need to look for ways to protect our body and environment from those irreversible and damaging attacks. We can take advantage of some particular sources by researching Dr. EnQi (my dad) or Mona Harrison. This is important as it directly influences 80-99 % of our body and also helps the planet Earth which is mostly water.

We need high amounts of Molecular Hydrogen!!!!

Normally, the pH of water is 7 and it is neutral, but the pH of alkaline water is alkaline because it has more negative ions than positive ones, creating this optimal medium of energy carrier into your system. Our bloodstream along with other elements inside of our body work naturally through the physiological functions that effectively regulates the pH of our body. A human body with a neutral pH is considered to have the ideal health condition. Anything below 7 is acidic as it imbalances the body creating sickness. Above of 7 is alkaline and this state is beneficial due to the fact that it neutralizes the acidity in the body, and neutralizes harmful waste substances inside the body, to slow or even reverse, acidification and oxidation. Alkaline water promotes better blood circulation, helps prevent disorders from the immune system, allows nutrients to be absorbed more efficiently, and boosts your metabolism. STOP!!!!! All of the above is a lie!!!! Its not the “PH” that confers a health benefit, its the amount of Molecular Hydrogen in the water that heals. One of the best ways to keep the pH to a neutral and balanced level of 7.0 is eating Vegan and taking Herbs.

The average water consumption recommended is 8 glasses of water a day; at least half the daily water consumption, for example 4 glasses per day, should be alkaline water. This is the big secret my dad hides of Mommatomix and why its soooo powerful, Molecular Hydrogen.


How To: Plant Based Magnesium

Chlorophyll – Potent Porphyrin

Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−). The parent porphyrin is porphine, a rare chemical compound of exclusively theoretical interest. Substituted porphines are called porphyrins. With a total of 26 π-electrons, the porphyrin ring structure is often described as aromatic.[1][2] One result of the large conjugated system is that porphyrins typically absorb strongly in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. they are deeply colored. The name “porphyrin” derives from the Greek word πορφύρα (porphyra), meaning purple.

11 Amazing Health Benefits Of Vervain


Blue Vervain, also known as Simpler’s Joy, is an exotic herb that possesses a fascinatingly vast medicinal history. It is one among the 250 members of the Verbenaceae family and is popularly called Vervain. This plant with violet flowers can be seen spread across Europe and America. Read on to know about blue vervain benefits here.

The Vervain was earlier used as an aphrodisiac, but today it is a well-known tranquilizing agent and antidepressant. It is also known to offer countless benefits to women. This vervain herb has made a name for itself with its countless beneficial properties for mankind. Read on to know more about this herb and its benefits:

Blue Vervain Benefits:

Check out here some of the top benefits of blue vervain in detail here.

1. Natural Mood Enhancer:

The power of vervain to ease the feelings associated with anxiety and stress is well-acknowledged. Drinking a cup of vervain tea has a soothing effect on the central nervous system that in turn triggers a sensation of calmness and relaxation. Thus, this herb has been widely used to aid people suffering from depression and stress. Vervain is also believed to be effective in easing post-traumatic stress as well as insomnia. Just drink a cup of warm vervain tea 30 minutes before you hit your bed for a good night’s sleep. A natural tranquilizing agent, it is a good antidote for restlessness and irritation.

2. For A Healthy Gut:

This herb, in the form of tea, can be used as a natural drink to ease digestive disorders and keep the gut healthy. It has been a sought after remedy for various common problems affecting your tummy, including bloating, cramps, and flatulence. A natural remedy for vomiting and diarrhea, this herb is also known to boost nutrient absorption. Get rid of the worms and toxins from your stomach with this herb. The herb can be used as a good laxative as well. Studies suggest that regular use of about 2 oz to one quart of this vervain decoction can ease vomiting, thus relieving you from stomach pain. This herb decoction, when applied externally, is also known to cure piles.

3. For Better Oral Health:

Give your gums and teeth a dose of goodness by chewing this herb regularly. A very effective traditional medication for bleeding gums, this herb is also known to ease the pain and redness experienced due to mouth ulcers.

4. Natural Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Agent:

Vervain is known to possess innate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it an efficient cure for cold and fever. Along with easing body pain and lowering the temperature levels during episodes of fever, it is also known to provide immense relief from migraine and sinusitis. A natural stimulant and revitalizing agent, this herb is also used as a tonic to overcome the weakness experienced after a severe bout of fever. It is also known to eliminate the phlegm from throat, thus offering relief from continuous bouts of cough.

5. Natural Antispasmodic Agent:

This ancient herb is known to possess antispasmodic properties. That is why it is highly recommended by traditional physicians as a medication for muscle cramps, pains, and spasms. It can be used as a poultice to ease pain associated with medical conditions such as ear neuralgia and rheumatism.

6. Good For Women’s Health:

Packed with intense mood improving properties, this herb helps in easing the anxiety and mood swings experienced by women during the premenstrual period. Vervain is also used to induce menstrual cycle in women whose periods has been delayed.

The herb has the potential to trigger uterine contractions, and hence, it can be used to induce labor and hasten child birth. Studies also indicate that using vervain aids in improving lactation levels naturally after delivery.

7. Natural Tonic For Your Liver:

This herb is known to bestow the liver with various benefits. The anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic properties of this herb enable it to be used effectively in the treatment of jaundice by cleansing the liver.

[ Read: Healthy Foods for Liver ]

8. Antidote For Malaria:

The ancient Chinese medicine suggests the use of the roots of Blue Vervain as a natural cure for malaria.

9. Blue Vervain Benefits For Skin:

The natural astringent and anti-inflammatory properties of this herb enables it to be used as a natural remedy for various skin infections. Studies also suggest that this herb is useful in safeguarding wounds from infections. It also helps to get rid of the toxins inflicted from insect bites.

10. Good For Kidney Stones:

Just prepare an infusion by steeping 1 tbsp dry blue vervain leaves in one pint boiling water for 10 minutes. Consume about 6 tbsp every day, spread over 6 doses, to get rid of urinary bladder infections and kidney stones.

[ Read: Home Remedies for Kidney Stones ]

11. Natural Detoxifying Agent:

The herb is known to induce sweating and one can take the help of this herb to eliminate toxins from their body via sweat. This also helps the skin look fresh and young.

What Is The Recommended Dosage?

While there are no established recommended dosages for this herb, traditional medications suggest a daily use of 2 to 4 grams as an infusion.


  • Even though blue vervain is known to be a storehouse of benefits, it should be used in restricted amounts. Excessive consumption of this herb can trigger vomiting, leading to dehydration.
  • Since the herb is known to induce uterine contractions and lactation, pregnant women are advised against consuming the same during the initial stages of pregnancy.

So, this was about vervain uses in different ways. Blue vervain can be used in various forms – powder, tincture, capsules, tea, and flower essence, to name a few. 

Hope you liked our post on vervain benefits. However, it is always advisable to consult your homeopathy physician or an herbal specialist and take his/her advice before you start consuming the herb.

Burdock Root Detoxes Blood, Lymph System + Skin

Burdock root - Dr. Axe

What if I told you that a certain plant’s roots could detoxify your blood, lymphatic system and skin? Would you be interested? Then you should know about burdock root.

Burdock root has been valued across continents for thousands of years for its ability to purify blood and cool internal heat. Internally and externally, it has potent anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects on the human body. Recent studies also show that burdock contains phenolic acids, quercetin and luteolin, which are all powerful, health-promoting antioxidants. (1)

Similar to dandelion tea, you can make burdock root tea, and it can also be found in supplement form or be eaten as a vegetable. What does it taste like? Burdock has a pleasantly crunchy texture and an earthy, sweet flavor that’s similar to lotus root or celeriac. Read on to find out just how awesome burdock root truly is, including the medicinal uses of burdock in treating serious chronic diseases like cancer and diabetes! (2)

9 Amazing Burdock Root Benefits

The benefits of burdock root are wide-ranging and sure to impress. Here are some of the top ways it can seriously improve your health.

1. Blood Purifier

In traditional herbal texts, burdock root is described as a “blood purifier” or “alterative” and was believed to clear the bloodstream of toxins. (3) Burdock root has active ingredients that have been found to detoxify heavy metalsfrom the blood, improving organ health and the health of the whole body. It also promotes blood circulation to the skin surface, which improves skin health.

2. Lymphatic System Strengthener 

Essentially, the lymphatic system is the the body’s inner “drainage system,” a network of blood vessels and lymph nodes that carry fluids from tissues around the body into the blood and vice versa. If you can make your lymphatic system stronger, then you can help your body ward off all kinds of disease and serious health issues. Burdock root helps induce lymphatic drainage and detoxification. As a natural blood cleanser, it has a wonderful effect on the lymphatic system. (4)

3. Natural Diuretic

Diuretics stimulate the kidneys and help the body get rid of excess fluid, mainly water and sodium. Burdock root is a natural diuretic so through burdock consumption, you can naturally and easily help your body to eliminate excess water by increasing urine output. By elevating the rate of urination, burdock root can help to remove waste from the blood and body. (5)

If you have issues with fluid retention, you should ask your doctor about trying burdock root before resorting to prescription products.

4. Skin Healer

Topical products containing burdock root have offered relief from pesky skin issues for ages. From acne to eczema to psoriasis, burdock root is known to calm and heal these common skin issues. Consumption of burdock has also helped many people with skin issues through its blood-cleansing and internal cooling abilities.

Scientific studies have even shown that burdock extract can even improve the clinical signs of aging skin! One 2008 study showed that topical treatment with a natural burdock extract significantly improved the metabolism of the dermal extracellular matrix and led to a visible wrinkle reduction. (6) For good reason, we’re likely to see burdock root being used more and more in skin care products, especially for mature and dry skin.

5. Defend Against Diabetes

Burdock root contains inulin, a soluble and prebiotic fiber that helps improve digestion and lower blood sugar, making it an excellent choice for people trying to naturally manage their blood sugar. In Europe, the fresh root is used for lowering blood sugar, its inulin content making it particularly suitable for diabetes. Animal studies have also shown burdock root’s ability to decrease the severity of diabetic complications, especially diabetic retinopathy. (7)


Burdock root nutrition - Dr. Axe


6. Combat Cancer

European physicians of the Middle Ages and later used burdock to treat cancerous tumors (as well as skin conditions, venereal disease, and bladder and kidney problems). Many herbalists today say burdock root can stop cancer cells from metastasizing, making it a potential natural cancer treatment. In fact, animal studies of mammary, colon and pancreatic cancer have shown promise for burdock’s ability to fight against cancer. (8)

One big reason burdock shows promise for naturally fighting cancer is the fact that it contains arctigenin. Arctigenin is a lignan found in certain plants of the Asteraceae family, including greater burdock (Arctium lappa), which has been shown to combat cancer cells by selectively stopping the proliferation of cancer cells and by inhibiting the cancer cells’ production of particular proteins (NPAT proteins), hence crippling cancer’s ability to reproduce. (9)

Another study found that arctigenin was a cancer-specific phytochemicalthat killed human lung cancer cells, human liver cancer cells and human stomach cancer cells. (10) Studies like this are proving what many have believed for years — that burdock root is a seriously effective natural cancer fighter!

7. Improves Arthritis

Burdock root is known for its powerful anti-inflammatory abilities, even helping to soothe arthritis. A study published in the International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases showed that burdock root tea improves inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease.

Subjects were given three cups of burdock root tea per day for forty two days and were then assessed for inflammatory markers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The results showed that burdock root tea can significantly help people suffering from osteoarthritis by lowering inflammatory markers. (11)

8. Helps Treat an Enlarged Spleen

If you suffer from an enlarged spleen, burdock root can help. The spleen is a vital “guardian” organ that we rely on to keep the body free from infections, viruses and all kinds of dangerous pathogens. An enlarged spleen is a clear warning sign that the immune system is fighting hard to remove threats from the body but failing to do so because it can’t keep up with high demand.

Your spleen is in constant contact with your blood so as burdock root cleanses your blood, it also cleanses and protects the spleen. It can help the spleen because it improves blood quality as well as liver health, circulation and fights inflammation. Improving those four factors has a direct positive effect on spleen health so you definitely want to include burdock in your spleen-healing lineup. (12)

9. Fight Tonsillitis

Burdock root can help get rid of painful tonsillitisAcute tonsillitis is a type of inflammatory virus that causes tissues within the tonsils to become infected with harmful bacteria. Burdock root is helpful to tonsillitis because it increases wound healing, decreases inflammation, and helps to relieve coughs, sore throats and pain. (13)

Burdock Root vs. Dandelion

How exactly does burdock compare to dandelion? Both are members of the Asteraceae plant family and have been used in their entirety for traditional as well modern medicine for years.

Both burdock root and dandelion are excellent for diabetes and skin conditions. They’re also natural diuretics that are loaded with antioxidants. Dandelion is specifically excellent at cleansing the liver and protecting the bones while burdock is an amazing blood cleanser, which also makes it very helpful to liver health.

Burdock is also helpful for bones, particularly osteoarthritis. Dandelion is high in fiber as well as vitamins A, C and K, while burdock is equally high in fiber as well as vitamin B6, potassium and magnesium.


Burdock root vs. dandelion - Dr. Axe


Burdock Root Nutrition Facts

Burdock root (genus Arctium) is a genus of biennial plants in the Asteraceae(daisy) family that’s native to Northern Asia and Europe, but it’s now found throughout the U.S., where it grows as a weed. In Japan, it’s often called gobo root and is cultivated as a vegetable.

Burdock has large, heart-shaped leaves and bright pink-red to purple thistle-like flowers. It also has burrs that can stick to clothing or animal fur. The deep roots of the burdock plant are brownish-green or nearly black on the outside.

Burdock root is a slender, brown-skinned root vegetable that typically grows to be more than two feet in length. It consists primarily of carbohydrates, volatile oils, plant sterols, tannins and fatty oils.

Nutritionally speaking, one cup of burdock root contains about (14):

  • 85 calories
  • 20.5 grams carbohydrates
  • 1.8 grams protein
  • 0.2 gram fat
  • 3.9 grams dietary fiber
  • 0.3 milligram vitamin B6 (14 percent DV)
  • 0.3 milligram manganese (14 percent DV)
  • 44.8 milligrams magnesium (11 percent DV)
  • 363 milligrams potassium (10 percent DV)
  • 27.1 micrograms folate (7 percent DV)
  • 3.5 milligrams vitamin C (6 percent DV)
  • 60.2 milligrams phosphorus (6 percent DV)
  • 48.4 milligrams calcium (5 percent DV)
  • 0.9 milligram iron (5 percent DV)
  • 0.1 milligram copper (5 percent DV)

Burdock Root History & Interesting Facts

Burdock root has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Europe — and more recently in North America. In Japan, it’s a largely consumed vegetable, typically eaten fresh or cooked, and the young leaves can also be cooked like any other vegetable.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, burdock fruit has been used continually for thousands of years. It’s typically associated with the lung and stomach meridians, is known to cool internal heat, and is commonly used for supporting skin health. In European folk medicine, an infusion of the seeds was often employed as a diuretic, enhancing health by supporting the processes of digestion and elimination.

Would you believe that the inspiration for Velcro actually came from the burdock burr? In 1941, the inventor, a Swiss engineer named Georges de Mestral, went for a walk in the woods and wondered if the burrs that clung to his trousers and dog could be turned into something useful. After nearly eight years of research, de Mestral successfully reproduced the natural attachment with two strips of fabric, one with thousands of tiny hooks and another with thousands of tiny loops. He named his invention Velcro and formally patented it in 1955. (15)

Burdock root has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb used to promote healthy hair, relieve scalp irritation and improve scalp condition. In Europe, burdock root oil, also known as bur oil, is commonly used as a scalp treatment to help prevent hair loss and get rid of dandruff. The thought is that all of those nutrients that help your skin, blood and organs could also improve your hair and scalp health.

7 Wonderful Parsley Health Benefits

The health benefits of parsley include controlling cancerdiabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis, along with helping prevent osteoporosis. Furthermore, it acts as a pain reliever with anti-inflammatory properties. It also provides relief from gastrointestinal issues such as indigestion, stomach cramps, bloating, and nausea, while helping to strengthen the immune system.

Parsley can be found throughout the year on the market. It is a cheap leaf that anyone can get a hold of. It is also a highly nutritious plant and has ample vitamins and antioxidants which can greatly improve our health.

What Is Parsley?

Parsley is an herb that originated in the Mediterranean region of southern Italy, Algeria, and Tunisia. This herb is known scientifically as Petroselinum hortense and Petroselinum crispum, and it belongs to the family Apiaceae.

It has been cultivated by man for more than 2,000 years and was highly regarded in Greek culture since it was used in various ceremonies. The Romans also used it in many ways. Pliny the Elder, a 1st century AD historian, wrote that it was consumed by people from all walks of life. At first, it was used only as a medicinal plant, but later on, it was consumed as a food. There are many myths and fables associated with the origin and growth of this plant in many Mediterranean and European cultures. The Greeks believed that it had sprung up from the blood of the fallen Greek hero Archemorus. Thus, Greeks started associating it with death and destruction, but in the Middle Ages, parsley was included in folklore medicines and it slowly gained popularity. This is possibly how the image of parsley as a health giver developed.

Parsley, a predominantly tropical plant, needs moisture and ample sunlight to grow. It is used as an herb, a green leafy vegetable, and as a spice. Actually, both the leaf and the root are used in Mediterranean and European cuisines. It is consumed in many different ways, including garnishing, salads, stocks, and sandwiches. The leaf is further divided into two more types: curly leaf and flat leaf. The root form is a new addition, which only began to be cultivated about 300 years ago, and was first grown in Hamburg, Germany. Nowadays, root parsley is steadily becoming more popular.

Parsley Nutritional Facts

The nutrients found in parsley include vitamin A, K, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavinniacinvitamin B6vitamin B12pantothenic acid, choline, folates, calciumironmagnesiummanganese, phosphorous, potassiumzinc, and copper. It is also a very good source of volatile compounds such as myristicin, limonene, eugenol, and alpha-thujene. Its leaves contain energy, carbohydrates, fats, and protein.

Health Benefits Of Parsley

Parsley, known for its use as a garnish, has many nutrients that provide health benefits to people. Some of these benefits include:

Anti-diabetic Properties

Traditionally, parsley was used as a medicine for diabetes in Turkey. In order to scientifically validate this claim, research was conducted at Marmara University in Istanbul, Turkey. The research showed evidence that diabetic rats that were given parsley actually showed a decrease in their blood sugar levels over a period of a month. The research indicates that it can be used for diabetic control.

Controls Rheumatoid Arthritis

Parsley has also been particularly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. Compounds such as vitamin C and beta-carotene found in the herb possess anti-inflammatory properties that help in controlling arthritis. Consuming it regularly is also believed to speed up the process of uric acid removal, which has been linked to symptoms of arthritis.

Anti-carcinogenic Properties

Zheng, Kenney, and Lam from LKT Laboratories in Minneapolis, Minnesota have extracted a compound named myristicin, which is a phenylpropane compound, from parsley oil extract. A preliminary investigation into the myristicin compound had revealed that it has anti-carcinogenic properties. Myristicin extract from the herb was only tested on rats and human application of this compound still remains to be seen.Parsley2

Anti-inflammatory Properties

Parsley has traditionally been used in the Mediterranean region for toothaches, bruises, insect bites, and rough skin. According to preliminary studies conducted at the King Saud University by Al-Howiriny et al., parsley displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxicity properties. The anti-inflammatory properties reduce internal inflammations, while the anti-hepatotoxic properties help to cleanse the liver.


Parsley is effective in cases of osteoporosis and is helpful in maintaining bone health. Osteoporosis occurs due to depleted levels of calcium in the bones and also due to lack of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid can be broken down by the intake of folic acid. Due to this aspect, apart from dairy products and vegetables, parsley is regarded as one of the best sources of calcium. It also contains an appropriate amount of folic acid, which may break down homocysteine.

Diuretic Effects

For many centuries now, parsley has been used as a diuretic that helps in controlling various diseases such as kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and gallbladder stones. Edema is a medical condition where a patient retains fluid in the body more than what he or she is supposed to hold under normal circumstances. The body swells because of fluid accumulation. If you are afflicted by this condition, a few teaspoons of parsley juice can provide some quick relief. The roots of the herb are also very much useful in counteracting kidney stones. Adding its roots to boiling water and drinking it on a daily basis is known to be effective as a general cleanser for the body.

Strengthens the Immune System

The vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants found in parsley are helpful for strengthening immunity. Vitamins such as vitamin C, A, K, folate, and niacin each act on different aspects of the immune system. Vitamin A acts directly on lymphocytes or white blood cells, thereby increasing their effect. The chlorophyll contained in it has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties as well. Studies have shown that the herb contains antioxidant properties and antibacterial properties, making it an ideal source for various home remedies.

Risks Of Eating Parsley

Consumption of parsley especially in large quantities may have side effects and disadvantages. Some of them include the following:

Scientific Data on Hapi Hair

Hapi Hair is designed to help your body fight DHT build up, yeast/fungus, sweat gland atrophy, follicular disfunction and restore stem cell stability. Hapi Hair works not just for the hair and follicles on your head but every hair and follicle in as well as on the human body.

This kit is designed to Regenerate your Internal Hair Bio-Chemistry. Right now I’m using my Hpi Hair kit for hair, skin and nails nutrition while using the Mane Choice externally. My Hair has never been better!

Kit consists of two bottles of the new and improved Antonia’s Hair Villi ($65 FoTi aka Polygonum Multiflorum, Pumpkin Seed, Bhringaraj, Biotin, Silica, Tyrosine, Yucca & Keme) approx. 50 capsules each, 1oz YouMelanin ($35 Cilantro, Cloves, Milk Thistle & Copper Extracts), 2 bottles of Pink Lips ($50 Kelp, Chondrus Crispus aka Seamoss & Hydrangea) & a 1oz PhiEarn ($45 Yellow Dock, Stinging Nettles, Chaparral & Iron Extracts).

Hair Growth Starts Immediately in the first 28 Days

Hair Growth Becomes Exponentially Explosive after 120 Days (approx. 4 months)

Save time and MONEY!!! with the six month plus kit!!!



Diagram of a hair follicle in a cross section of skin layers


What causes gray hair?

Scientists believe that senile hair graying, as the process is called, results from changes to enzymes in the hair follicle caused by naturally generated hydrogen peroxide. This is the same chemical that is used to bleach hair, only generated by the body itself due to free radical stress.

Hydrogen peroxide stops the production of the pigment called melanin, the same pigment that gives us our skin color. It does this by chemically changing the amino acid methionine so that an enzyme called tyrosinase cannot assist in the process of making the natural hair coloring pigments. Some people have a genetic variation that causes melanin to make pigments that cause the hair to look blue, instead of gray, in the presence of the chemically altered amino acid.

Graying hair isn’t just due to age.

Some people’s hair turns gray gradually, but sometimes the hair turns gray almost overnight. Typically there has been some kind of extreme stress on the body that disrupts the production of antioxidants that protects the hair (and other parts of the body) against free radicals.

Hair turns gray from the root up.

The biochemical process that causes hair to turn gray takes place during the “anagen” stage of hair production, inside the follicle, before the hair emerges from the skin. If you can’t dye the “roots,” you will never completely conceal gray hair.

Food Grade Yucca Schidigera extract has a considerable number of uses.  Natural plant saponins address many human maladies.  Yucca Schidigera extracts are from a plant in the Lillie family that is native to the Southwestern United States and Mexico.  Native Americans have used Yucca for hundreds of years to treat a variety of disorders.

MINERALS:  Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Selenium and Silicon

VITAMINS:  A, B complex, C

Daily doses of Yucca Schidigera extract has many human consumption uses: reduces arthritis, reduces Gout (lowers uric acid), reduces trans fat digestion, reduces carpal tunnel syndrome, reduces cholesterol,  restores cartilage, reduces colitis, reduces irritable bowl syndrome, prevents sore muscles, use as a shampoo to stop hair loss and restore hair growth, helps people to stop smoking, detoxifies the intestinal track. 

Use of silicon for skin and hair care: an approach of chemical forms available and efficacy*


Silicon is the second most abundant element on Earth, and the third most abundant trace element in human body. It is present in water, plant and animal sources. On the skin, it is suggested that silicon is important for optimal collagen synthesis and activation of hydroxylating enzymes, improving skin strength and elasticity. Regarding hair benefits, it was suggested that a higher silicon content in the hair results in a lower rate of hair loss and increased brightness. For these beneficial effects, there is growing interest in scientific studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of using dietary supplements containing silicon. Its use aims at increasing blood levels of this element and improving the skin and its annexes appearance. There are different forms of silicon supplements available and the most important consideration to be made in order to select the best option is related to safety and bioavailability. Silicon supplements are widely used, though there is wide variation in silicon bioavailability, ranging from values below 1% up to values close to 50%, depending on the chemical form. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific literature related to the different chemical forms of silicon supplements available and the limitations and recent progress in this field. According to reported studies, among the different chemical forms available, the orthosilicic acid (OSA) presents the higher bioavailability, whereas the others forms have absorption inversely proportional to the degree of polymerization. However, clinical studies evaluating safety and efficacy are still lacking.

Keywords: Biological availability, Collagen, Dietary supplements, Hair, Silicon, Silicon compounds, Skin aging


Silicon is the second most abundant element on earth, exceeded only by oxygen. Also, it is the third most abundant trace element in the human body., It is present in the water and in plant and animal sources. On the skin, it is suggested that silicon is important for optimal synthesis of collagen and for activating the hydroxylation enzymes, improving skin strength and elasticity. It was shown that physiological concentrations of orthosilicic acid (OSA) stimulate fibroblasts to secrete collagen type I. In the case of hair, it is suggested that higher silicon content in the hair fiber results in a lower rate of hair loss and increased brightness. Nails are also affected by the presence of silicon, since this is the predominant mineral in their composition., For these beneficial effects, there is growing interest in scientific studies to examine the efficacy and safety of the use of dietary supplements containing silicon, which aims to increase serum levels of this element and hence lead to improvements in the skin and its annexes. There are different forms of silicon supplements available and to select the most suitable option, the most important considerations to be made are regarding safety and bioavailability. In some countries, these supplements are already widely used, although there is great variation in silicon bioavailability, ranging from less than 1% up to values close to 50%, depending on the chemical form.,

However, it is observed that there is still no consensus among researchers about the statement that silicon is an essential element for man or about the real benefits obtained from the use of supplements containing silicon. Thus, it is extremely important to critically evaluate the information published so far regarding efficacy, safety and bioavailability of silicon used in complementary supplements to the diet. That was the aim of this study.


The aging process occurs by two main mechanisms: intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic aging is unavoidable and results in atrophy, fibroblasts reduction and thinning of blood vessels. The collagen fibers are particularly affected in this process, which results from the accumulation of irreversible degenerative changes associated with aging.,, The extrinsic aging primarily results from damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. Other factors related to this type of aging include smoking, pollution and inadequate nutrition. These types of injury lead to increased degradation of collagen and elastin. Also, a reduction in the number of extracellular matrix proteins and a decrease in fibroblasts are described,, in addition to a reduction of silicon levels and hyaluronic acid in the connective tissues.

Collagen and fibers formed by it are responsible for the biomechanical properties of the skin, allowing it to act as an organ of protection from external trauma. They present as essential components of structural integrity of the connective tissue and are present in large quantities in the skin, bones and joints., A reduction in the amount of collagen in the skin of about 1% per year after 21 years of age is described, resulting in thickness reduction and elasticity loss, which is directly related to the wrinkles depth.,

Changes occurring after menopause are even more striking, including loss of about 30% of skin collagen in the first 5 years and annual loss of 0.55% of elastin., The biosynthesis process of collagen after the third or fourth decade of life remains at a low level, insufficient to allow mature skin to repair or replace the collagen that has been lost as part of the degradation processes associated with age. The decrease of collagen that occurs after menopause especially correlates with decreased bone mineral density associated with age.

By the study of skin aging process, it’s possible to observe that the degradation of collagen fibers has a remarkable role in this context. Based on this, the use of mechanisms that influence the biosynthesis of this protein is as a potential tool for improving and preventing skin aging.


Considering the abundance of silicon in the human body, it seems unlikely that its deficiency occurs in men and women.

In 1972, two studies by two different research groups showed that silicon was an essential element in chickens and mice., These experiments demonstrated that nutritional deficiencies of silicon led to skeletal deformities such as abnormal skull and long bone structures, as well as malformed joints with cartilage poor content. Thus, an important role of silicon in bone mineralization was demonstrated.

After that, several studies showed silicon participation in different mechanisms, with positive results associated with higher concentrations of this element in the blood in patients with osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, skin aging and fragile hair and nails., However, there are no conclusive data to determine whether or not silicon is an essential nutrient for humans and superior animals, since its deficiency has not led to cell cycle interruption in mammals, and its functional role remains to be clearly defined., Most of the silicon present in the blood is filtered by the kidneys, suggesting that this mechanism represent the major route of excretion and that levels of silicon in blood correlate with the levels present in urine. For this reason, various studies evaluate the serum concentration as well as the one present in urine in order to study the bioavailability of silicon and its derivatives.

Silicon occurs naturally in foods in the form of silicon oxide and silicates, which are present in water and in plant and animal sources and are found in high concentrations especially in cereals., The main sources of silicon from the diet in the Western Hemisphere are cereals (30%), followed by fruit, beverage and vegetable-derived products in general. Together, these foods provide about 75% of the total silicon ingested by man.

However, there are studies that question the bioavailability of silicon from some sources, due to the low solubility of some compounds, especially those that are polymerized., Thus, although significant quantities of silicon are present in some foods, sometimes it is presented in an insoluble form and cannot be directly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The silicon present in food is solubilized in the acid environment of stomach, becoming OSA [Si (OH)4], which can then be absorbed. It is described in the literature that the aging process is associated with an increase in gastric pH, which decreases the conversion capacity of this silicon found in foods in the bioavailable form.

OSA is the main type derived from silicon present in drinking water and other liquids, including beer, and it is considered the most readily available form of silicon to humans. It is stable when diluted (<10-4 M) but polymerizes in higher concentrations in a pH close to neutral. Absorption studies indicated that only OSA is available while its polymerized form is not absorbed. Questions on the bioavailability of silicon from the mineral water are reported in the literature. In a study conducted with rats that received supplementation with OSA in the water they ingested, there were no significant differences in the concentration of silicon present in bones in relation to baseline. In beer, it demonstrated that about 80% of the total silicon found corresponds to OSA. However, there are discussions involving the availability of OSA, which could be unstable in industrial processes such as, for example, bottling.

At high concentrations, OSA needs to be stabilized so it doesn’t polymerize excessively, resulting in a reduced bioavailability. For this reason, silicon-containing supplements attempt, by different methods, to concentrate OSA and stabilize it in a way to make it more bioavailable.


Different consumptions patterns of supplements containing silicon are observed around the world. As an example, the organic silicon – commonly the monomethyl silanetriol (MMST) – is more consumed in France, while in Germany the colloidal silicon are more present and, in Belgium, choline-stabilized OSA (ch-OSA) is more frequent.,

The MMST is not only organic, but also monomeric while other silicates show different degrees of polymerization, which should explain the different silicon absorption values in experiments with rats and in some preliminary studies in humans., Some studies have shown that it is readily absorbed after digestion and observed no adverse events with its use. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that, until the completion of these works, specific studies to evaluate its safety were not conducted.

Jugdaohsingh et al, in 2013, conducted a study to assess the safety of using this supplement. A group of 22 healthy women, who were not menopausal, received MMST oral supplementation for 4 weeks, with the maximum recommended dose of 10.5 mg/Si/day. The authors concluded that MMST intake is safe and that it was absorbed. They also presented data to prove that, after ingestion, there is conversion of MMSR in OSA, which would justify its absorption.

However, in response to the published article, Vanden Berghe questioned some points of the study, claiming that studies of longer duration in humans and toxicological tests in vitro and in animals are needed in order to prove the safety of using the supplement containing MMST. According to Vanden Berghe, these studies were not presented in the article in question and they are also scarce in the available literature on the subject. The statement on MMST conversion in OSA was also questioned.

The authors of the original study published a response that kept emphasizing the study’s findings. They argued that they used rigorous methodology and that, in the adopted conditions, they could conclude it was safe to use the supplement containing MMST. The authors, however, agreed that studies with larger numbers of volunteers and greater length of time would be needed for the continuation of research involving this supplement.

MMST has been used as a silicon source for a long time around the world, especially in Europe. This supplement, unlike others available, does not contain nano-silica particles, on which concerns regarding the safety have been reported., However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers that there is not enough data to justify the use of MMST as silicon supplement.

The greatest number of studies in the literature evaluates ch-OSA. The ch-OSA has been approved for human consumption and is known to be non-toxic, in addition to representing the most bioavailable form of silicon.,

In chemical terms, ch-OSA is a mixture of OSA and choline chloride. Given the lack of data about adverse reactions to silicon, a recommended dose has not been established. Nevertheless, according to the American regulatory agency, choline, silicon oxides and various silicates are classified as substances “generally recognized as safe”.,

The stabilization with choline is considered the most advanced technology for OSA stabilization. Choline has important characteristics that place it in the position of an ideal stabilizer for OSA, in addition to promoting benefits due to its own characteristics. In high concentrations, choline avoids extensive polymerization and aggregation of silicon particles, to keep it in an aqueous suspension.

Furthermore, as previously mentioned, choline present in the compound may have a synergistic effect with OSA, since it is well known its participation in many basic biological processes. Choline is a precursor of phospholipids, which are essential for the formation of cell membranes, as well as being involved in processes such as cell signaling, lipid metabolism and protection against the collagen breakdown mediated by homocysteine.,

In 2009, EFSA requested a scientific opinion to the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food concerning ch-OSA safety. The only objective was to evaluate ch-OSA as a silicon source and also its bioavailability. Thus, silicon safety itself, in terms of daily amounts that can be consumed and its classification as a nutrient, was outside the scope of scientific opinion published by the Panel.

Based on different studies conducted in animals and in humans, the Panel concluded that the silicon present in ch-OSA is bioavailable and that its use in supplements, in the proposed doses, does not present risks for safety, providing that the choline maximum level is not exceeded (3.5 g/day).

Studies were analyzed both in animals and in humans so the conclusion on bioavailability and safety were published by EFSA. A study of calves that received supplement containing ch-OSA or placebo for 23 weeks evaluated the evolution of serum silicon concentration. There was a 4.9% increase at this concentration in the group of animals receiving silicon. In another study, Vanden Berghe assessed the bioavailability of silicon in offspring of 21 pigs, which received or not (control) supplement containing ch-OSA during the gestation (16 weeks) and lactation (four weeks) period. In the offspring of pigs that received supplement containing silicon, significantly higher silicon concentrations were found (150% increase) than in the offspring of the control group. The authors attributed this result to the bioavailability of silicon in the supplement containing ch-OSA and also to the maternal transfer capability of absorbed silicon. The silicon absorption from supplement containing ch-OSA was assessed in a study of 14 healthy volunteers aged 22-34 years. Each volunteer received successive oral doses of silicon from different sources. A significant increase in serum concentration of silica compared to baseline was observed for ch-OSA., This study demonstrated that the bioavailability of silicon is to a great extent dependent on the chemical form of the compound.

In another study, conducted in order to examine in vivo absorption of silicon by evaluating its serum dosage and its urinary excretion, different patterns of absorption for the different sources used were found. This study obtained different results, depending on the source, although it has evaluated absorption in just a healthy volunteer. It was observed that a diet rich in silicon does not result in sufficient bioavailable amounts of this element that would lead to a statistically significant increase in its urinary excretion and serum levels, when compared with the period in which the volunteer was subjected to a normal diet. A significant increase in silicon urinary excretion was observed when the evaluated supplementation consisted of tablets containing dry extract of horsetail. However, the silicon serum levels remained constant. Only the biologically active silicon present in solution at 2% silicon in a matrix of choline and glycerol was absorbed, which reflected in the significant increase of silicon in both serum levels and in urine excretion. Based on this study, the authors concluded that silicon absorption is strongly influenced by its chemical form and matrix.

Sripanyakorn et al measured silicon uptake from 8 different sources. In healthy volunteers, blood and urine samples were analyzed to quantify the concentration of silicon. The results confirmed that the degree of silicon polymerization is inversely proportional to intestinal absorption.


Regarding the skin, it is suggested that silicon is important for optimal synthesis of collagen and for activating the hydroxylation enzymes, important in the formation of collagen network, improving skin strength and elasticity. Silicon is also associated with the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans. Concerning the hair, it is suggested that strands with higher silicon content tend to have lower falling rate and higher brightness. Nails are also affected by the presence of silicon, since this element is one of the predominant mineral in their composition. The presence of soft and brittle nails can indicate systemic deficiency of silicon. By improving the quality of nails, there is an increased protection against nail infections.,

In a study with 50 healthy volunteers, aged between 40 and 65 years and with clear clinical signs of facial photoaging, the effect of the intake of supplements containing ch-OSA to the skin, hair and nails were analyzed. The supplement was held for a period of 20 weeks, with 2 capsules containing 10 mg of ch-OSA taken daily. Also, serum concentrations of various components in the blood were evaluated in order to verify safety of oral treatment. The silicon intake under these experimental conditions was considered safe, since there were no reported adverse events with this treatment. This study, according to the authors, was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that showed positive results in the skin microtopography and anisotropy after the intake of supplement containing ch-OSA. At the end of the period of use supplement containing silicon, there was a significant improvement in the skin surface characteristics and in its mechanical properties.

Also in this study, it was observed a significant improvement in the fragility of nails and hair in the group using the ch-OSA. The placebo did not lead to significant differences in rating assigned by the volunteers by the self-assessment questionnaires completed before the start and after the end of the study.

Another randomized study with 48 volunteers investigated the effect of ch-OSA on hair. The volunteers had thin hairs and were divided into 2 groups: ch-OSA and placebo. The first group received daily doses of 10 mg of silicon, for a period of 9 months. Morphology and mechanical properties of hair were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the study. In general, positive results were obtained in the evaluated hair properties, such as strand resistance to breaking, for example. Furthermore, the area of the strand front section increased significantly after 9 months of supplementation containing ch-OSA, whereas the placebo group exhibited no significant difference.

The fact that ch-OSA have partially prevented the loss of hair tensile strength suggests that it has a structural effect on hair fibers. According to the authors, an interaction with keratin is possible, considering that OSA is the chemical form of silicon prevalent in physiological fluids and that silanol group, present on OSA, is known to form complexes with amino acids and peptides.,,


The analysis of the scientific literature on the use of supplements containing silicon shows great therapeutic potential of this element, as it operates in different conditions of human health and presents aesthetic properties. Among the various chemical forms available, the analysis of studies shows that OSA is the form that presents greater bioavailability; other forms have absorption inversely proportional to the degree of polymerization. We also observed that ch-OSA is the most referenced form in the literature, suggesting a greater scientific support regarding its use. However, there are few studies evaluating the safety, efficacy and bioavailability of the different existing chemical forms of silicon that use proper design, large number of volunteers and long follow-up period.

Does Biotin Really Help With Hair Growth? (What Studies Show)

Let’s talk biotin and hair growth. You know those commercials that claim that these hair, skin and nail multivitamins can help speed up hair growth, and add volume at the same time? Well it’s the vitamin biotin in these products that claims to be the vitamin for beauty. It’s hard to avoid a conversation on hair growth without hearing about biotin, so I have dug into the scientific studies to determine if biotin truly does help to promote hair growth or not.

Let’s find out if taking biotin really makes a difference, and uncover the sources, and health benefits of this “beauty” vitamin.

What is Biotin?

what is biotinBiotin is often referred to as Vitamin H, for hair or B7. Biotin is a water soluble b-vitamin. This vitamin is a vital part of a healthy metabolism and is essential for creating important enzymes. (1) Since Biotin is classified as a b-vitamin it is an excellent source of energy, and is used as energy in our bodies. This vitamin is known to help many systems in the body including our skin, nerves, digestive tract, metabolism, and our cells. Biotin may play an important role in many parts of the body, but we need to take a closer look as to whether or not it really does speed up hair growth. First let’s take a look at the sources of Biotin.

Sources of Biotin

Although biotin is supplemented with more times than not when trying to promote hair growth, biotin can also be found in small amounts in foods. At the end of the day getting biotin fromfood sources it better absorbed in the body than from a supplemental version of the vitamin. Sherry Ross, OB/GYN and Women’s Health Expert at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica states that the foods listed below contain small amounts of Biotin.

sources of biotin

  • Cauliflower
  • Liver
  • Salmon
  • Carrots
  • Bananas
  • Soy flour
  • Yeast
  • Wheat germ
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products
  • Nuts
  • Swiss chard
  • Chicken

Health Benefits of Biotin for Your Hair

benefits of biotin“Many people take biotin supplements to increase the health of their skin, hair and nails. While more research is needed, it seems that B7 may be helpful in these areas.”

Taking biotin for hair growth can be promising, and there have been studies to prove how effective it is:

  • Ablon Skin Institute Research Center and the University of California, concluded that women who suffered with thinning hair had great success with hair growth when taking biotin.
  • Registered Dietitian, Lauren Graf who works out of a cardiac wellness center has stated that biotin is very important for hair, skin and nails, and that those with low levels could experience thinning hair, and brittle nails.
Biotin for Thinning Hair

We known that biotin can benefit our hair, but let’s talk about how exactly it can prevent and improve hair thinning.

Hair thinning can occur for a number of reasons such as aging, or certain medications however it can also occur if someone is not getting enough biotin. Supplementing with biotin can improve hair thinning, and actually prevent it from happening.If you are getting adequate amounts of biotin your chances of developing a deficiency are lower which means your chances of thinning hair reduces as well!

Biotin for Hair Growth

This is what most of us want to know before taking biotin. Will biotin really work to help promote hair growth?

Biotin is vital to cell proliferation, which is why it is a valuable tool in hair growth.” (3)

When it comes down to what hair is composed of, it actually consists of keratin which is a protein. This is a big reason as to why biotin helps to promote hair growth. When biotin is ingested, biotin then reacts with cell enzymes and plays a large part in producing amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of proteins. Strings of amino acids are what makes up a protein. Since hair consists of protein, consuming foods high in biotin can actually boost hair growth, and lead to healthier hair.

What Biotin Won’t do for Your Hair

While biotin can be very beneficial for hair growth, supplementing with biotin will not help to prevent hair loss. Oregon State University’s Linus Pauling Institute states that there is just not enough scientific evidence to prove that biotin supplementation can improve hair loss. It’s important to understand why you are experiencing hair loss in the first place, it may be something that needs to be addressed a different way before trying to supplement with biotin. For example someone with a hormonal imbalance that is experiencing hair loss is not going to see hair re-growth from biotin until they address their hormonal imbalance, the root cause of their hair loss.

How Do You Know if You Are Deficient in Biotin?

biotin defiiciencyBiotin deficiency is actually quite rare in the US, however if you are not getting enough biotin you will see noticeable symptoms.

One of the obvious symptoms of biotin deficiency is thinning hair, and weak or brittle nails. A biotin deficiency can however present itself in more ways than one.

Other deficiency symptoms include nausea, muscle pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, depression and skin changes.

Proper Dosage of Biotin

The Mayo Clinic’s dosage recommendation for adults is between 30-100 mcg per day of biotin. (2) While The Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board recommends that  adults should get 19.30 mcg of biotin per day. The dosages ranges according to your age, and if you are actually biotin deficient or not.

Should You Supplement With Biotin?

supplementThe bottom line is that if you have thinning hair, brittle nails and skin issues then you may benefit from taking biotin. If you are deficient in biotin then supplementing can also not only be very important for your overall health, but can also be beneficial for hair growth. Even though supplementing with biotin can give your hair and nails a nice boost, a vitamin alone should never replace a healthy diet high in vitamins and minerals. If you eat well, and eat foods high in biotin while always staying hydrated then you will not have to worry about biotin deficiency. It’s important to remember that ” Your body needs other substances found in food, such as protein, minerals, carbohydrates and fat. Vitamins themselves cannot work without the presence of other foods.” (4) If you are consuming healthy foods, as well as foods high in biotin, and you are just looking to boost your hair growth then taking a biotin supplement will help your hair grow faster.

“Healthy hair comes from a healthy diet, and a healthy lifestyle. Supplementing with biotin should come second to improving your diet.”

Eclipta Alba aka Bhringaraj Extract Grows Hair Quicker than Minoxidil

Eclipta alba (also known “Bhringraj” and “False Daisy”) is a tropical herb that has been used to treat various illnesses. A traditional use for it in Ayurvedic medicine has been hair loss treatment and hair dyeing.

While many traditional remedies have not been scientifically studied, Eclipta alba has not one but two actual studies behind it showing hair growth promoting activity in rodents. In the first paper, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of the herb were compared against minoxidil (link). The second paper also used minoxidil as a positive control, but this time the extract was made with methanol (link).

To get an overview of how effective Eclipta alba really is for growing hair, in this post we’ll be comparing the results from both papers.

The three Eclipta alba extracts

In the first paper, 500 grams of dried coarse powder of Eclipta alba was initially extracted with petroleum ether. The resulting marc was further extracted with ethanol to make the ethanol extract. These extracts were then incorporated into an ointment base in concentrations of 2% and 5% (i.e. the resulting ointments contained 2-5% ethanol extract).

In the second paper, 1 kilogram of Eclipta alba was extracted with 95% methanol and then filtered and concentrated. The final formulations contained either 3.2 mg/kg or 1.6 mg/kg of the extract in a solution of propylene glycol and DMSO.

Study design

The petroleum ether & ethanol study used six groups of rats with their backs shaved. Group I was applied ointment base only and served as control, Group II was applied 2% ethanol extract, Group III was applied 5% ethanol extract, Group IV was applied 2% petroleum ether extract, Group V was applied 5% petroleum ether extract, and group VI was applied 2% minoxidil and acted as positive control. The ointments were applied for 30 days.

In the methanol study, mice with hair already in telogen phase were selected. Two experiments were done: the first one compared the effectiveness of 1% and 2% minoxidil to a control vehicle, and the second one looked at the effectiveness of 1.6 mg/kg and 3.2 mg/kg methanol extracts of Eclipta alba. The extracts were applied for 10 days.

Results from Eclipta alba in rats

Shaved rats treated with the petroleum ether extract of Eclipta alba began growing new hair significantly faster than rats in the control group. Whereas the control rats took 12 days to initiate hair growth, the petroleum ether extract rats took only 5 to 6 days, with the stronger ointment being slightly more effective. The time it took to completely cover the shaved area in hair was also decreased from 24 days to 20 days.

2% minoxidil reduced hair growth initiation time to 6 days and completion time to 20 days. Therefore, minoxidil was as effective as 2% petroleum ether extract but slightly less effective than 5% petroleum ether extract. Ethanolic extracts reduced the time of hair growth initiation only slightly and had no effect on completion time.

The hair growth effects were due to a marked conversion of hair follicles from telogen to anagen phase. In the control group and ethanol extract group, most of the follicles were in telogenic phase, while in the minoxidil and petroleum ether extract groups most follicles were in anagenic phase. Notably, petroleum ether extract of Eclipta alba was even more effective in inducing anagen phase than minoxidil.

Petroleum ether extract also increased the length of the hair follicles, similarly to minoxidil. In the control group only 34% of follicles were longer than 0.5 mm. In the extract and minoxidil treated groups the percentage was 44-49%, with minoxidil being most effective. Once again, ethanol extract did not have a significant effect.

Results from Eclipta alba in mice

Conversion from telogen to anagen phase was observed in 87.5% of the mice treated with the stronger methanol extract (3.2 mg/kg) and in 50% of the rats treated with the weaker extract (1.6 mg/kg). This was evidenced by the increased number of follicles in the subcutis layer and a thickening of the skin. The total number of follicles was also increased. None of the control rats showed a similar effect.

Both concentrations of minoxidil increased skin thickness, follicle count and the percentage of follicles in anagen phase. 2% minoxidil was slightly more effective than 1% minoxidil. According to the authors, the effects of minoxidil and the methanol extracts were “comparable”, but looking at the data, it seems that the stronger extract of Eclipta alba was in fact significantly more effective. For example, 2% minoxidil increased mean follicle count from 43 to 73, whereas the 3.2 mg/kg methanol extract increased it from 19 to 66. The conversion from telogen to anagen was also more pronounced in the methanol extract group.


A petroleum ether extract of Eclipta alba increases hair growth in rats by converting follicles from telogen to anagen phase. The hair growth promoting effect is similar to that of minoxidil. An ethanol extract, however, showed only very modest results. No change in fur color was reported.

In mice, methanol extracts of Eclipta alba induce conversion of hair follicles from telogen to anagen phase. Eclipta alba also increases skin thickness and the number of total and subcutaneous hair follicles. These effects are even more pronounced than those seen from 1% and 2% minoxidil. Since the mice had black fur to begin with, the hair dyeing claims could not be evaluated.

Possible reasons for the lack of efficacy in ethanol extracts of Eclipta alba are the lack of wedelolactone and beta-sitosterol. While petroleum ether extracts and methanol extracts contain significant amounts of wedelolactone, ethanol extracts do not. Wedelolactone has the abilitiy to suppress caspase-11 (link) and androgen receptors expression (link).

Petroleum ether extracts are also high in beta-sitosterol, which has been shown to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase (link), a key factor in genetic hair loss. The beta-sitosterol content of methanol extracts of Eclipta alba was not reported in the study.

Hair can be considered a crowning glory for many women and a sign of youth and vitality for men. When men and women begin to lose their hair, this can become a source of insecurity. In addition to products like Rogaine or other prescription medications, there are many natural remedies, like eating pumpkin seeds, that may help grow hair.

Pumpkin seeds contain fatty oils with linoleic acid and oleic acid, both known to prevent cancer-causing cell production. They are also an excellent source of vitamins A, B6 and C. In addition, the seeds contain beneficial nutrients like zinc, magnesium, calcium and iron. Perhaps most important to those suffering from hair loss, the seeds contain cucurbitin, a unique amino that may be responsible for pumpkin seeds’ effects on hair growth.

There are many causes of hair loss, including poor health or long-term illness, genetics, stress and hormonal imbalance. A lack of important nutrients in your diet can also lead to hair loss or a nonproductive scalp. The oil from pumpkin seeds are believed to effect testosterone and androgen levels in the body. Lack of androgens in the body is believed to be a primary cause of hair loss. Eating a handful of seeds a day can benefit in the fight for hair growth.


Pumpkin Seeds for Prostate Problems and Preventing Hair Loss

Raw pumpkin seeds are a high protein and mineral rich food that have some specific benefits for hair loss prevention and protecting men against prostate problems.

Here’s just what makes pumpkin seeds so good for both preventing hair loss and improving your prostate health if you are a man.

BHP, Dihydrotestosterone and Pumpkin Seeds 

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, commonly called BPH, is a painful male condition that leads to constriction of the urethra and difficulty urinating.

It is quite common in older men but there are several health nutrients in pumpkin seeds that can help by reducing dihydrotestosterone, the primary cause of BHP.


The first of these is a mild steroidal compound called delta-7-sterine. Research has found delta-7-sterine directly competes with the much more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at the receptor sites in the prostate.

DHT is strongly implicated in prostate cell proliferation, but when delta-7-sterine is present in the diet in large enough amounts, it appears to minimize the harmful effects of dihydrotestosterone on the prostate.


Pumpkin seeds contain high levels of phytosterols, including the much studied beta-sitosterol. Beta-sitosterol has been shown to block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase.

This can have many positive effects, like a reduction in hair loss, but specifically for prostate problems, the less excess DHT in the body to act upon the prostate the better.

In a double-blind placebo-controlled study of treating benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols, BPH symptoms were shown to be ‘significantly improved in the treatment group’ with no side effects noted.


The high zinc content in pumpkin seeds is another reason why they are considered so good for guarding against prostate problems.

Zinc is important for proper hormone production, including testosterone. It also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is said to enhance your immune response. All of these are potentially beneficial for a man suffering from an enlarged prostate.

Zinc is also needed for healthy hair and a deficiency in this mineral is often associated with hair loss as it directly affects the proper functioning of your hair follicles.

Other Nutrition for a Healthy Prostate in Pumpkin Seeds

Pumpkin seeds also contain other protective factors to help prevent or treat prostate problems, such as good levels of antioxidant carotenoids like beta-carotene, magnesium and essential fatty acids.

The incidence of male prostate problems has been found to be considerably lower in countries where pumpkin seeds are often consumed, like Austria and Hungary.

This is hardly surprising with all of the different nutrients in pumpkin seeds and eating them regularly may help moderate dihydrotestosterone levels, reduce an enlarged prostate and relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Pumpkin Seeds and Hair Loss

Excessive dihydrotestosterone can cause many problems for men, particularly later in life. The same DHT responsible for enlarging the prostate and causing benign prostatic hyperplasia, also contributes to hair loss and eventually male pattern baldness.

DHT causes hair loss in men by shortening the anagen (growth) phase of the hair follicle. This can lead to progressively finer and weaker hairs that, over time, simply stop growing.

However, the beta-sitosterol in pumpkin seeds has been shown to act as an inhibitor of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. It’s this enzyme that converts testosterone to hair damaging dihydrotestosterone.

http://superfoodprofiles.com/pumpkin seeds-prostate problems%20preventing-hair-loss


. 2015 Jul-Sep; 7(3): 225–236.
PMCID: PMC4471648

Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds


Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment.

Keywords: Clinical pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, herbal hepatotoxicity, Polygonum multiflorumThunb., therapeutic assessment


Plants, herbs, and ethnobotanicals have been selected and used empirically as drugs for centuries, initially as traditional preparations then as pure active principles, with the knowledge and accumulated practice passing from generation to generation.[,] Medicinal plants are plants containing the substance that are used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs.[] Herbal Medicinal can be categorized into two broad parts. The first one includes complex of mixture containing a wide variety of compounds (e.g.: Infusions, essential oils, tinctures or extracts), and the second category refers them as pure, chemically define active principles.[]

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT, Polygonaceae family, Figure 1)), well known as He shou wu in China and Fo-ti in North America,[] is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicinal vine-like herbs, officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.[] Various parts of the plants were utilized for different medicinal purposes. The leaves [Figure 2a], root tuber [Figure 2b] and rhizomes [Figure 2c] of this plant have been used as tonic and anti-aging agents[,,,,,] whereas the stem [Figure 2d] is used to alleviate insomnia and even to have an antidiabetic therapeutic activity as well.[,,]

Figure 1

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb

Figure 2

Photos of (a) leaves, (b) tuber roots, (c) underground rhizomes and (d) stem from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb

Laboratory studies and clinical practice have demonstrated that PMT possesses various biological and therapeutic actions, including anti-tumor,[,] antibacterial,[] anti-inflammatory,[] anti-oxidant,[,,] anti-HIV,[] liver protection,[,] nephroprotection,[] antidiabetic,[,] anti-alopecia,[,] and anti-atherosclerotic activities.[,] It has been also reported to exert preventive activity against neurodegenerative diseases,[,,,,] cardiovascular diseases and to reduce hyperlipidemia as well.[,]

The clinical efficacy, as well as the safety of PMT and its bioactive products, has attracted much attention in the recent years; due to the increasing reports of various cases on hepatotoxicity,[,,,,] published worldwide. In the present review, the advancements in thorough investigation of clinical studies and pharmacokinetics (PKs)-pharmacodynamics (PDs) profile of P. multiflorum are discussed, meanwhile describing the clinical features of this particular herbal-induced liver injury. This report will enlighten the broad understanding on the clinical therapeutic evaluation of PMT or other herbal drug containing quite the same phytochemical components.


An electronic search was performed by searching several databases: PubMed (Medline), Highwire, HerbMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Library using key terms including, “PMT,” “He shou wu,” “Shou-Wu-Pian,” “Shen-Min,” “Fo-Ti,” and “clinical study,” “humans,” “patients,” “case report,” “hepatotoxicity” to identify English-language publications (case reports, case series, prospective study and clinical review articles) and abstracts published regarding P. multiflorum and/or its compounds. Furthermore, we scanned the references lists of the primary articles to identify the publications not retrieved by electronic research. A total of 54 publications were identified, and the results compiled. They showed 7 articles relevant to clinical PKs-PDs analysis, 2 to anti-inflammatory effect, 2 for dyslipidemia treatment, 2 relevant to sleep disorders, 3 for neurodegenerative diseases and 52 patients with hepatotoxicity due to P. multiflorum ingestion. The quality of clinical studies on P. multiflorum, the characteristics and outcomes of patients reported with herbal hepatotoxicity and the P. multiflorum claimed pharmaco-therapeutic values are reviewed and discussed in this paper.


Herbal medicines are mixtures of more than one active ingredient. The multitude of pharmacologically active compounds obviously increases the likelihood of interactions taking place. Hence, the likelihood of herb-drug interactions is theoretically higher than that of drug-drug interactions, if only because synthetic drugs usually contain single chemical entities.[] Case reports and clinical studies have highlighted the existence of a number of clinically important interactions, although cause-and-effect relationships have not always been established. Herbs and drugs may interact either pharmacokinetically or pharmacodynamically [Figure 3].[]

Figure 3

Schematic representation of the physiologic processes determining drug disposition in the human body and the relationship of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to these processes (A: Administration, D: Distribution, M: Metabolism, E: Excretion)

To date, a number of in vitro studies have addressed the potential of selected herbal extracts and/or specific constituents to inhibit or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms and P-glycoprotein (P-pg). However, translation of in vitro data in a clinical setting is hard to accomplish, and discrepancies are often observed between predicted outcomes on the basis of the in vitro studies and results of controlled clinical studies.[]

Several pharmacological and clinical studies have been done to investigate the PK-PD parameters analyzes of PMT and/or its bioactive components. In 2002, some Korean scientists conducted a clinical PK study about rhein; one of the main bioactive of PMT.[] This research produced some interesting findings, enlightening that in terms of the bioavailability, while the levels in aloe-emodin, emodin, and chrysophanol [Figure 4] in herbal extracts were much higher than rhein level, only rhein was selectively absorbed by the body even if rhein is structurally similar to other anthraquinones.[] These findings corroborate the results of another clinical study published a decade earlier by Krumbiegel and Hu.[] This phenomenon can be explained by one of the three following possibilities. The first one is that rhein are formed when sennosides (e.g.: Sennoside A, Figure 5) are decomposed by bacteria in the intestines,[] but the time courses of plasma rhein concentrations render this possibility highly improbable. The second possibility is that sennosides are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into anthrones [Figure 6], and the sulfoconjugation or glucoronidation occurs leading to the excretion of the substance through urine.[] The third possibility stressed out the fact that rhein can be easily bio-transformed from aloe-emodin.[,] Furthermore, in another clinical investigation, the high bioavailability of rhein was assessed using the routes of administration as comparative key of the research. The findings suggested that after a single dose of herbal extract, the oral bioavailability of rhein was significantly higher than its rectal bioavailability.[] By analysis of the route administration, the absorption of weak acids such as rhein may be optimal in the acidic environment of the stomach, whereas their absorption might be unfavorable in the relatively alkaline situation of the small intestine. Retention enema therapy requires multiple, higher daily doses due to poor bioavailability if the same plasma rhein concentration as oral therapy is to be achieved.[]

Figure 4

Chemical structures of aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, danthron, emodin, physcion and rhein

Figure 5

Chemical structure of sennoside A

Figure 6

Chemical structure of anthrones

Herbal medicines constituents may affect the function of the drug-metabolizing enzymes by inhibiting through different, yet not completely disclosed mechanisms, the catalytic activity of specific enzymes, or they may simply compete for binding. In either case, increase in oral bioavailability and/or reduction of hepatic clearance of the affected drugs are expected to occur, thus leading to an increase in the plasma drug levels, which may expose the patient to a serious risk of adverse drug toxicity.[] The drug transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the in vivo process, the modulatory effects on both P-pg[,,] and CYP450 isoenzymes[,] and the acute toxicity[,,,,,] of PMT and/or its major bioactive compounds are all well documented. P-gp-based drug interactions are a major concern in the clinic and in preclinical drug development, especially with respect to the intestinal absorption of drugs and distribution of drugs across the liver, kidney, intestine and blood-brain barrier.[] Despite the widespread use of herbal medicines, documented herb-drug interactions are spare. However, studies on common herbs indicate that significant herb-drug interactions exists.[] Several commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been reported to interact with P-gp. For example, St. John’s wort was found to increase the duodenal P-gp expression by 1.4-fold in healthy volunteers after multiple oral administrations. It was also reported that St. John’s wort could result in an 18% decrease of digoxin exposure after a single oral dose of digoxin (0.5 mg).[,] Li et al. investigated the inhibitory effect of PMT constituents on P-pg mediated the digoxin transport in MDR1-MDCKII cells. The herbal constituents tested were trans-Resveratrol [Figure 7], 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxylstilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG, Figure 8), emodin, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and physcion. Among the various constituents of P. multiflorumtested, emodin was significantly the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC50= 9.42 μM) in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells.[] Furthermore, clinical study findings enlightened emodin to be found to possess the strongest promising effect for overcoming P-gp mediated steroid resistance by inhibiting the P-gp efflux function.[]

Figure 7

Chemical structure of trans-resveratrol

Figure 8


Genetic polymorphisms in the CYP450 enzyme also contribute to differences in an individual’s ability to metabolize herbal medicines. The use of concurrent medications that either inhibit or induce one or more isoforms, which may result in significant changes in the rate of drug clearance, is one of the major reason for altered CYP450 activity.[,] CYP450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and CYP450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotic in the body,[,] their expression appear to be induced by various herbal medicines and/or dietary constituents.[] The genotype and the allelic frequencies of CYP1A2 were evaluated in Chinese patients with acute liver injury induced by P. multiflorum in order to investigate CYP1A2 allele polymorphism association with the hepatotoxicity from PMT.[] The findings revealed that the frequency of the CYP1A2 * 1C mutation in Chinese patients with P. multiflorum-induced acute liver injury differed significantly from that in healthy Chinese people, indicating that CYP1A2 * 1C is probably related to metabolism of PMT, which is, followed by acute liver injury.[] Moreover, despite the structural similarity and/or identical molecular weight of various herbal constituents, emodin significant inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity.[] Considering P. multiflorum and/or its constituents as relative toxic compound, potential drug-herb/herb-herb interactions based on CYP and P-gp should be taken into account when using this herbal medicine in the clinic. By fully appreciating the nature of PKs, PDs principles, and drug-herb interactions, healthcare professionals can drastically reduce unwanted side effects and at the same time enhance the therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of herbal medicines.


In general, sound scientific evidence is lacking to support the use of many of the herbs currently marketed. A number of herbal products rely on anecdotal evidence to support their use. Many of the clinical trials in the literature are of limited quality owing to small sample sizes, improper randomization, and/or the lack of adequate controls. Large-scale, randomized, controlled trials have not been undertaken by the herbal industry owing to the fact that herbs are not patentable, and the potential of economic gain from positive study results is limited. A number of researchers and organizations (e.g. Cochrane collaboration) have attempted to critically evaluate available study data through systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Many of the analyses have been equivocal.[] The use of herbal medicines presents unique clinical and pharmacological challenges not encountered with conventional single-compound medicines. These medicines are usually complex mixtures of many bioactive compounds and conventional “indications and uses” criteria devised for single-compound entities may not be applicable in a significant number of ways.[]

Few clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the traditional therapeutic claims and to study the potential of PMT and/or its various bioactive constituents, highlighting available clinical evidence.

Anti-inflammatory bioactivity

Inflammation is known to contribute to physiological and pathological processes by the activation of the immune system, local vascular system, and various cells within the damaged tissue.[] Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, is caused by a variety of factors, including microbial pathogen infection, physical, chemical, and surgical irritation, and/or wounding and it is involved in the pathogenesis of various many chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and cancer.[,,,] The classical characteristics of inflammation are pain, swelling, edema, redness, and heat.[] Accumulating epidemiological, and clinical evidence shows that chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases.[] Therefore, suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory molecules and signaling factors is one of the important target pathways in order to prevent or treat various diseases.

Various natural products from TCM have been shown to safely suppress pro-inflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of PMT and/or its bioactive constituents occur by inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, chemokines (e.g.,: CCL2) and cytokines (e.g.: Interleukin-1 beta).[,,,P. multiflorum was significantly tested for the treatment of the localized neurodermatitis by plum-blossom needle taping in a clinical study that enrolled 141 patients.[] Moreover, STD07 (Physcion) developed by Sun Tem Phytotech for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, single-centered and placebo controlled study in Asian healthy volunteers.[] The authors found that up to 250 mg/day orally for 14 days; STD07 was general well tolerated with no clinically meaningful adverse effects in healthy volunteers in this Phase I clinical trial. Good therapeutic evidences of P. multilforum and/or its bioactive constituents have been shown in these aforementioned clinical studies to be used as anti-inflammatory agents. However, extensive clinical research is needed concerning the therapeutic value of this herbal medicine on its anti-inflammatory activity.


The hepatocytes play important role in the distribution, biosynthesis, transferring and removal of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and other related lipoproteins.[] In normal human liver, the mean contents of TC and TG are 3.9 and 19.5 mg/g wet weight, respectively. Traditionally, liver fat content >50 mg/g (5% by wet weight) is diagnostic of hepatic steatosis.[] Dyslipidemia, defined as any abnormality of serum lipids and lipoproteins, including low levels of HDL-cholesterol that is associated with increased coronary heart diseases (CHD) risk, is a substantial contributor to the incidence of CHD.[] In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to diet and lifestyle. Prolonged elevation of insulin levels can also lead to dyslipidemia. Similarly, increased levels of O-GlcNAc transferase may cause dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia can be treated with dietary alterations and medications that affect lipid metabolism via a variety of mechanisms.[] Being the first-line therapies for reducing LDL-C serum levels, statins also have adverse effects, including muscle myopathy and derangements in hepatic function.[] Fibrates are second-line drugs that are used for the treatment of dyslipidemia and reduce serum TG levels by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. However, fibrates increase serum creatinine concentrations[] and have been correlated with sudden death, pancreatitis, and venous thrombosis.[]

Traditional Chinese medicine plays a very important role in the treatment of dyslipidemic patients.[] An early uncontrolled clinical study of 50 hyperlipidemic patients suggested that PMT has lipid-lowering effect which may be related to its regulatory effect on the genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein metabolism.[] In a very recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the therapeutic effect of P. multiflorum in patients with dyslipidemia was investigated.[] The findings concluded that being a considerable composition of the multiherb formula, P. multiflorum showed marginal beneficial effect on reducing plasma LDL cholesterol levels in patients with dyslipidemia. In order to validate the claimed dyslipidemia therapeutic action of P. multiflorum and/or its bioactive compounds, further well-designed clinical studies with solid evidence are warranted to investigate this mechanism.

Sleep disorders

Insomnia or sleeplessness is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.[] It is prevalent in woman and the elderly by 40% more common in women than in men.[,] Different measures, such as pharmacotherapy and behavioral management, are applied for insomnia and associated complaints.[] Current insomnia pharmacotherapeutic agents mainly target the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence.[] An analysis of the United States National Health Interview Survey data from 2002 by Pearson et al.[] revealed that of the 17.4% of adults (n = 93 386) reporting insomnia or regular sleep disturbance in the preceding month, 4.5% (of that population) used complementary and alternative medicine to improve their sleep.

In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Several traditional herbal medicines, such as Valeriana officinalis,[,Passiflora incarnata,[,Matricaria recutita L.,[,Humulus lupulus,[,Ginkgo bibola,[Centella asiatica,[Rhodiola rosea,[Hypericum perforatum,[Piper methysticum[,] and Zizyphus jujuba[] have been widely clinically reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. Moreover, recently Wuling capsule, a single herb formula from mycelia of precious Xylaria nigripes was investigated for its efficacy and safety, through a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail, in Chinese patients with insomnia.[] The clinical findings claimed that Wuling capsule could considerably improve insomnia and in terms of adverse effect, on a-6 weeks study period the drug was well-tolerated by all the patients.

In the first large-scale survey done in Taiwan of the use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) or the treatment of insomnia in a Chinese population, P. multiflorum was found to be the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb.[] Furthermore, among the Chinese herbal formulas used to treat insomnia, P. multiflorum was found significantly an important constituent of the ingredients. Although Shou-wu-teng (P. multiflorum) is often used to treat insomnia during clinical practice, no clinical research exists in the Western literature verifying its sedative or anxiolytic effects.[] Despite limited evidence from currently available studies, herbal medicines, especially P. multiflorum and/or its bioactive compounds may have beneficial effects on anxiety and insomnia in patients with bipolar disorder.[]

Anti-insomniac phytotherapy opens up an exciting aspect of research which might benefit a large number of patients suffering from different degrees of insomnia. Future research using CHM for sleep disorders requires further rigorous studies with improved methodological design, such as using an appropriate placebo control, double-blinding, validated outcome scales, and longer follow-up periods.[] There is a need for more PD and PK studies to examine the mechanism of action, dosage regimen, toxicology and adverse effects, if there are any drug interactions and the epigenetic differences affected between single active constituents versus whole extracts and complex prescriptive formulas.[,] In order to avoid location bias, as nearly all these studies are conducted in China, other countries are also encouraged further to pursue CHM clinical studies in the treatment of sleep disorders.[]

Neurodegenerative disease

Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), stroke, Huntington’s disease (HD), vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), etc., As population aging is occurring on a global scale, the incidence of these diseases is likely to increase significantly in the near future.[] They show common pathology of aggregation and deposition of abnormal protein. For example, deposit of Aβ and tau in AD,[] α-Synuclein for Parkinson’s disease,[] huntingtin protein in HD,[] transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 in frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[] Neurodegenerative diseases usually have the symptoms of loss of orientation, spoken language, comprehension and learning abilities. To date, there is a lack of effective preventive strategies for these disorders. Furthermore, treatments are mainly symptomatic and can at best temporarily slow down disease progression.[] Moreover, lack of treatment options has led to an increasing number of people to use “natural” and herbal medicines in an attempt to prevent or delay the deleterious effects of ageing as longevity and good health have always been desirable goals for humans.

Various herbal medicines and/or their bioactive compounds have been found to exert significant therapeutic effect in vitro model of neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmacological studies of PMT extract claimed that this medicinal plant may be beneficial in preventing PD[] and AD.[] Furthermore, TSG [Figure 8], one of the bioactive compounds purified from its roots significantly antagonized age-related α-synuclein overexpression in the hippocampus of APP transgenic mouse model of AD[] and possessed neuroprotection in the 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.[Ginkgo biloba and Lycopodium serratum (Huperzine A), through various randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel and multi-center clinical trials have been assessed for their clinical efficacy and safety in AD treatment.[,] Their claimed neuroprotective therapeutic activity was significantly expressed on mild AD clinical cases.

Few clinical trials have investigated the potential therapeutic activity of PMT in neurodegenerative diseases. Chen et al. observed the clinical effect of PMT extract on AD.[] The findings suggested that the scores for the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Ability of Daily Living Scale were significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the Chinese herb control group and the western medicine control group (P < 0.01). Moreover, in a randomized, Piracetam-controlled, single-center clinical trial, P. multiflorum (Shouwu yizhi capsule) was evaluated as monotherapy for VaD.[] The authors found that the total clinical effective rate was 71.25% and that the herbal medicinal had obvious therapeutic effect on VaD, with no relative adverse drug reactions.

DCB-AD1 is a new drug derived from PMT and a medical team in Taiwan is proposing a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled and parallel clinical trial to assess its efficacy and safety in patients with mild to moderate AD.[] We therefore believe that further high quality clinical studies on PMT and its isolated bio-compounds, as well as the herbal mixtures resulted, will assess its actual clinical value and could lead to the discovery of new drugs for effective treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Herbal medicines are generally sold as food supplements, and as a consequence, therapeutic indications, efficacy, and safety are influenced by different opinions, according to the clinical or traditional experience of various folk medicines available in each country.[] The market regulation of herbal medicines is not harmonized because there are different regulations in European, Asian and North American countries, and as a consequence, this lack of rules gives poor guarantee of clinical safety.[] Many herbal products have been shown to cause severe toxicity, but, despite the potential toxicity, there is widespread use among eastern and western general population. Information on clinical issues of herbal medicines are scarcely available and even if they have been reported, unlike what happens general practitioners may not be fully informed since correct use and safety of herbal medicinal products is not taught by academic institutions in medicine faculties.[] The current situation requires the knowledge, recognition and monitoring of adverse reactions through pharmacovigilance activities.

Herbal hepatotoxicity or herb-induced liver injury is rare and represents a bundle of disorders, each characterized by a specific herb or herbal mixture considered as potentially hepatotoxic.[] Any individual herb with its multiple chemical constituents may target different liver cell types and/or different subcellular structures, causing likely different diagnostic markers for potentially hepatotoxic herbs and injury types with no single marker characteristic for herbal liver damage.[P. multiflorum (Shou-Wu-Pian and Shen-Min have been the most-well known products), being one of the most famous Chinese herbs to treat several diseases and medical conditions including dizziness with tinnitus, premature greying of hair, lumbago, spermatorrhea, leucorrhea, constipation and even chronic hepatitis B,[,,] has also been ranked in the top five of individual herbs or used most frequently in TCM formulations to induce hepatotoxicity.[] Several cases of hepatotoxicity due to PMT have been reported in patients from Australia, China, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands and Slovakia taking the product for hair loss, chronic prostatitis and to boost the immune system.[,,,,,]

The patients had a history of having ingested PMT in various forms (tea boil with PMT, liquor made of PMT, honey-soaked out with PMT, and the powder of dried PMT). However, it raised the issue concerning the form of the intake with the relation to the severity of hepatotoxicity.[] The processed roots of PMT have displayed lower rates of toxicity as reported in animal experiments.[] Processing appears to significantly reduce the amount of chemicals like 2,3,4′5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-Dglucoside, but it remains to be determined if this can explain reduced toxicity in humans. For raw PMT, the toxicity of water decocta appears to be higher than that of acetone extract. Meanwhile, the toxicity of acetone extract of unprocessed PMT is considerably higher than that of acetone extract of processed PMT. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the contents of characteristic compounds in raw PMT were changed after processing: The content of 2,3,4Ͳ,5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside was decreased by 55.8%, whereas the content of anthraquinone emodin was increased by 34.0%.[,] Thus, suggesting that processing should reduce the toxicity of P. multiflorum.


Plants have been selected and use empirically as drugs for centuries, initially as traditional preparations then as pure active principles, with the knowledge and accumulated practice passing from generation to generation.[] Herbal medicine, phytotherapy, phytomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, ethnomedicine, herbal medicinal product and dietary supplements are all terms used interchangeably to denote the use of botanicals in healthcare and are therefore used as such in this text.[] The human population is a total mixture, unlike selected batches of laboratory animals (same age, weight, sex, strain, etc.). For this reason, human beings do not respond uniformly to one or more drugs or even herbal medicines. Our genetic make-up, ethnic background, sex, renal and hepatic functions, diseases and nutritional states, ages and other factors such as the route of administration, all contribute toward the heterogeneity of our responses.[]

Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that PMT. extracts and/or its isolated pure compound possessed various biological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and exerting preventing activity against neurodegenerative diseases as well. Clinical investigations have enlightened its claimed therapeutic action in anti-inflammatory, dyslipidemia, sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. A general lack of knowledge of the interaction potentials of concurrent use of herbal medicines with prescription and/or over-the counter medicines poses a great challenge for health care professional and safety concern for the patients. In the recent years, due to increasing reports of herbal-induced hepatotoxicity, the clinical efficacy and safety of P. multiflorum and/or its isolated compounds have attracted much interest. The clinical presentation and severity of P. multiflorum can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatitis failure requiring transplantation.

Pharmacists and technicians, as well as physicians, dieticians, and other health care providers must become knowledgeable about herbal supplements and prospectively seek information regarding their patients’ use of unconventional medicines to avoid adverse consequences. Consumers need to be reminded that herbs are composed of chemicals that may, in some cases be toxic, especially if large quantities are ingested. Furthermore, much developed countries and scientific societies are encouraged to conduct clinical studies on P. multiflorum and/or its isolated compounds in order to evaluate their claimed therapeutic activities.

Li Ching Yuen was quite the extraordinary man. As a Chinese herbalist, he lived 256 years or 197 by his own account. Either way this is far more than is recognized as the maximum human life span.

Li Ching Yuen

The famous photo of Li Ching Yuen holding what appears to be a Ginseng root.

(The longest confirmed lifespan comes from Shirali Muslimov with the French woman Jeanne Calment, at 122. Another front runner, with similar debate about his, is Shirali Muslimov at an alleged 168 years old.

This modern day Methuselah had the picture taken above in 1927, a few years before his death, at the invitation of general Yang Sen in Wan Xian, Szechuan. The general, fascinated by his age and the youthfulness he displayed despite it, investigated his background and later published a report with his findings.

The New York Times covered Li Ching-Yuen several times including after his death in 1933.

Li Ching-yun, a resident of Kaihsien, in the Province of Szechwan, who contended that he was one of the world’s oldest men, and said he was born in 1736 — which would make him 197 years old — died today.

A Chinese dispatch from Chung-king telling of Mr. Li’s death said he attributed his longevity to peace of mind and that it was his belief every one could live at least a century by attaining inward calm.

Compared with estimates of Li Ching-yun’s age in previous reports from China the above dispatch is conservative. In 1930 it was said Professor Wu Chung-chien, dean of the department of education in Minkuo University, had found records showing Li was born in 1677 and that the Imperial Chinese Government congratulated him on his 150th and 200th birthdays.

A correspondent of THE NEW YORK TIMES wrote in 1928 that many of the oldest men in Li’s neighborhood asserted their grandfathers knew him as boys and that he was then a grown man.

According to the generally accepted tales told in his province, Li was able to read and write as a child, and by his tenth birthday had traveled in Kansu, Shansi, Tibet, Annam, Siam and Manchuria gathering herbs. For the first hundred years he continued at this occupation. Then he switched to selling herbs gathered by others.

Wu Pei-fu, the war lord, took Li into his house to learn the secret of his living to 250. Another pupil said Li told him to “keep a quiet heart, sit like a tortoise, walk sprightly like a pigeon and sleep like a dog.”

According to one version of Li’s married life he had buried twenty-three wives and was living with his twenty-fourth, a woman of 60. Another account, which in 1928 credited him with 180 living descendants, comprising eleven generations, recorded only fourteen marriages. This second authority said his eyesight was good; also, that the finger nails of his right hand were very long, and “long” for a Chinese might mean longer than any finger nails ever dreamed of in the United States.

Li Ching Yen Younger

Li Ching Yuen at a younger age. (Not clear of if he’s the tall guy or one of the others.)

And here’s a few more details from Wikipedia:

One of his disciples, the Taijiquan Master Da Liu… reports that his master said that his longevity “is due to the fact that I performed the exercises every day – regularly, correctly, and with sincerity – for 120 years.”

Certainly his practice of qigong and exercises was a contributor to his longevity.

His diet was made up primarily of herbs, along with rice wine (suggesting that many of these were in tincture form). According to many immortal legends of Daoist hermits, one of the ways to live far longer than most humans is to gradually shift away from a diet of regular food and subsist mostly on the tonic herbs.

Although there is no way it can be 100% verified as a fact either way, Yuen certainly was an old man. And it wouldn’t become legendary without some amount of truth to the story. Plus he’s not the only one to achieve such legendary status. Not only in age, but in sexual prowess. The man from which Fo-Ti (He Shou Wu) got its name, has a similar story.

The commonalities of such legends, including how to live your life and the taking of tonic herbs, is something well worth doing for anyone looking to live an advanced age, even just 100 years or beyond today.

Extra tricks My Dad and I use….. They are not necessary for Hair Growth Explosion though!

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Copper is crucial! Almost every brain function and every cycle of electrons through the Mitochondria uses copper… As almost every action tyrosine takes requires Tyrosinase and COPPER.

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My 2 Cents About Copper Worth A Million Bucks

The other day I was eating lunch with a friend and colleague and he mentioned that copper can increase the risk of cancer. This was not the first time I had heard something scary about copper. Last year, another friend (a medical doctor) also mentioned copper’s association with cancer, especially hormonal types. How could something so integral to our body be so bad I wondered?

I researched it. Just like I suspected, copper is essential to good health. We don’t need a lot of copper, but certain healthy amounts are vital and essential to our health and well-being. It’s all about balance! 

Copper is required for the formation of about 50 enzymes and it’s needed for our transporters, which shuttle hormones and neurotransmitters all over your body. Copper protects the lining of blood vessels and myelin. It supports energy production.

Did you hear me? Energy!  I think one of the most important facts about copper is how it supports the healthy functioning of two major enzymes in your body, one is SOD and the other is DAO.

SOD = superoxide dismutase: This enzyme repairs cells and keeps them from getting killed by superoxide! SOD protects mitochondria, and has anti-cancer activity. Without adequate levels of the enzyme SOD you will likely get cardiovascular disease. Copper helps increase SOD.

DAO = diamine oxidase: This enzyme breaks down histamine from all the foods you eat. There are hundreds of foods that contain histamine (it can cause migraines by the way). DAO is your body’s natural anthistamine. Copper increases activity and functioning.

Here’s a little known fact that has kept many people dragging all day long, in search of the next cup of coffee or soda. It’s about fatigue. How many of you suffer with chronic fatigue? If you have iron deficiency anemia that doesn’t respond to iron supplementation, and you’re ferritin remains suppressed, you might be copper deficient. You need iron to make hemoglobin, the main component of red blood cells and you cannot absorb iron without copper. Long story short, copper deficiency is sometimes at the heart of resistant iron deficiency anemia. An “RBC copper” blood test can reveal this.  I am a stickler about your test being RBC (or even WBC) because a common mistake is often made by physicians. They often measure “serum” or “plasma” levels. Who cares what is out there? Neither the serum or the plasma portion of your blood contains any clotting factors or red blood cells. Evaluating copper in the plasma or serum doesn’t give you an indication of what’s inside the cell, where the clotting factors are. That’s what you NEED to know. If you’re spending money for your lab test, you have to do it properly, insist if you have to. Blame it on me if you want to, I’ve got your back!

I am trying to teach you how to derive an accurate evaluation of your intracellular copper levels which will prevent misdiagnosis. If you are tested improperly, and you get a clot, it could cost you your life. Let’s pretend for a moment, that you get the serum copper test I told you not to bother with. Let’s say the serum copper is normal or even high. Serum copper reflects an inflammatory condition in the body (which most people have). This inflammation could be due to an autoimmune disease, arthritis, cancer, thyroid imbalances, gastrointestinal disorders, anything. This elevated serum copper could be happening while you have a full-blown deficiency inside your cells. Even your heart cells (heart muscle). You may be deficient in the most important part of your body, your cells but that plasma copper will come back as normal or even high. This is why proper testing matters.

Let me divulge on a tangent about warfarin, the most popular medication used for anti-coagulation (blood thinning) to prevent strokes. Warfarin goes by many popular brand names around the world including Coumadin or Jantoven in the United States, Marevan in Australia, Uniwarfin in India and there may be others. Some people call warfarin “rat poison” because it’s the active agent in some rodenticides. That wouldn’t prevent me from taking it if I had to, you see … you can take any drug and turn it into a rodenticide if you really want to!  Regardless, my article isn’t about weird uses of prescription drugs, it’s about copper, and how a copper deficiency can lead to thicker blood or blood clots. Most doctors don’t test you for that, they go straight to their prescription pad.

Warfarin may be a precursor to Alzheimer’s. We may see this one day come to light with studies. I’m telling you now. I always tell you years before mainstream media because I care. I am telling you this because warfarin is a drug mugger of vitamin K.  That’s why you have to avoid leafy greens and salads while on warfarin, you have to keep vitamin K down. (You must follow these directions from your doctor, I agree that if you’re on a drug, you need to be careful and avoid the drug interactions).  The drug WORKS through this mechanism of depleting K.
But here’s where it all goes awry. Vitamin K is crucial for sphingomyelin and helping you remember things. Before you take warfarin, find out whether or not you have a copper deficiency. Low levels in the cell cause clotting problems. The BIG DEAL NOW is to test properly! Most docs test serum copper levels. Who cares? It is almost always normal causing you to be dismissed.
In comes warfarin to help reduce clot formation!
I’m saying you need to ask your physician to measure copper levels for you, and make sure they are intracellular (either WBC, RBC or look on your CardioION test if you did one).


Scientific Data on Spring Summer Selenium

Spring Summer Selenium is a high-powered plant-based selenium.

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P. D. Whanger
Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331

The statements “Selenium may reduce the risk of certain cancers” and “Selenium may produce anticarcinogenic effects in the body” are supported by scientific evidence. There is significant scientific agreement that daily supplementation with selenium may reduce the risk of some cancers and that selenium is anticarcinogenic. This report will examine epidemiological studies, human clinical trials, animal studies, and in vitro studies on selenium’s relationship to cancer. It will examine the efficacy of different forms of selenium and of different levels of selenium supplementation.

I. Selenium

Selenium is classified in a group VIA of the periodic table of elements which includes the nonmetals, sulfur and oxygen, in the periods above selenium, and the metals, tellurium and polonium, in the period below this element (Combs and Combs, 1986a). By period, selenium lies between the metal arsenic and the nonmetal, bromine. Thus, selenium is considered a metalloid, having both metallic and nonmetallic properties. It has an atomic number of 34 and an atomic weight of 79. Elemental selenium, like its sister elements, sulfur and tellurium, can exist in either an amorphous state or one of three crystalline states.

Elemental selenium can be reduced to the -2 oxidation state (selenide), or oxidized to the +4 (selenite) or +6 (selenate) oxidation states. Hydrogen selenide (H2Se) is a fairly strong acid in aqueous systems. The gas is colorless, has an unpleasant odor, and is highly toxic. At low pH, selenite is readily reduced to the elemental state by mild reducing agents such as ascorbic acid or sulfur dioxide. In its oxidized state (+6), selenium can exist as selenic acid or as selenate salts. Selenic acid is a strong acid. Most selenate salts are soluble in water, in contrast to the corresponding selenite salts and metal selenides. Selenates tend to be rather inert and are very resistant to reduction.

The chemical and physical properties of selenium are very similar to those of sulfur. The two elements have similar outer-valence shell electronic configurations and atomic sizes and their bond energies, ionization potentials and electron affinites are virtually the same. Despite these similarities, the chemistry of selenium and sulfur differ in two respects that distinguish them in biological systems. First, in the biological systems, selenium compounds are metabolized to more reduced states whereas sulfur compounds are metabolized to more oxidized states. The second important difference in the chemical behaviors of these elements is in the acid strengths of their hydrides. The hydride, H2 Se, is much more acidic than is H2S. This difference in acidic strengths is reflected in the dissociation behaviors of the selenohydryl groups of selenocysteine and the sulfhydryl groups on cysteine. Hence, while thiols such as cysteine are predominantly protonated at physiological pHs, the selenohydryl groups of selenols such as selenocysteine are predominantly dissociated under the same conditions.

II. Selenocompounds in plants.

The metabolism of selenocompounds in plants has been summarized (Whanger, 1989). Selenium enters the food chain through incorporation into plant proteins, mostly as selenocysteine and selenomethionine (Semet) at normal selenium levels. However, with elevated selenium levels, Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMCYS) can be the predominant selenocompound. As many as eight other selenocompounds have been identified in plants but their concentrations are usually very low except at high selenium levels. Indicator plants (called selenium accumulators) can accumulate extremely large amounts of selenium, ranging from 1000 to 10,000 Fg selenium per gm because they synthesize mostly nonprotein selenoamino acids (Brown and Shrift, 1981). As much as 80% of the total selenium in some accumulator plants is present as SeMCYS and until recently it was thought to be absent in nonaccumulator plants.

The selenium content of plants is dependent upon the region of growth (summarized by Whanger, 1989). Vegetables such as rutabagas, cabbage, peas, beans, carrots, tomatoes, beets, potatoes, and cucumbers contained a maximum of 6 Fg selenium per gm even when grown on seleniferous soils. Vegetables such as onions and asparagus may accumulate up to 17 Fg selenium per gm when grown on these types of soils. Plants which contain deficient levels of selenium are found in the Pacific Northwest, upper Mid-West, the New England states and along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In other parts of the country such as North and South Dakota, Colorado and Western Nebraska plants may contain high levels of this element. Plants can synthesize organic selenium compounds including Semet from inorganic selenium (Burnell and Shrift, 1977). Because of the uneven global distribution of selenium, disorders of both selenium deficiency and selenium excess are known. For example, China has regions with both the lowest and the highest selenium-containing soil in the world (Yang et al, 1989 a,b). Plants of economic importance do not have a selenium requirement for growth and thus plant selenium is for the health of animals including humans.

Although the data are lacking, synthesis of the nonprotein selenoamino acids by plants probably occurs along pathways normally associated with sulfur metabolism. Conversion of selenocysteine to SeMCYS in accumulators has been shown to involve the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine, analogous to the synthesis of S-methylcysteine (Neuhierl et al, 1999). Even though the primary source of selenium in soil is inorganic, mostly selenate, Astragalus accumulators have been shown to synthesize SeMCYS when supplied with Semet (Chen et al, 1970). The ability of the accumulators to exclude selenoamino acids from proteins has been suggested as a reason for their selenium tolerance. Similar mechanisms apparently operate in selenium enriched plants such as garlic, broccoli, onions and wild leeks where the nonprotein selenoamino, SeMCYS, is the predominant one present.

Most of the selenium in enriched wheat grain (Olson et al, 1970), corn and rice (Beilstein et al, 1991) and soybeans (Yasumoto et al, 1984) is Semet. Semet is the predominant form of selenium in selenium enriched yeast (Ip et al, 2000a). Selenium enriched yeast is the most common source of selenium available commercially (Schrauzer, 2000). The selenoamino acid, Semet, is also available for the public. The major form of selenium is SeMCYS in selenium enriched garlic (Ip et al, 2000a), onions (Cai et al, 1995), broccoli florets (Cai et al, 1995) and sprouts (Finley et al, 2001), and wild leeks (Whanger et al, 2000).

III. Selenocompounds in animals

A brief metabolic pathway for selenium metabolism in animals has been presented (Ip, 1998). Organic selenium such as Semet or inorganic selenium can be converted to a common intermediate, hydrogen selenide. There are two possible pathways for the catabolism of Semet. One is the transsulfuration pathway via selenocystathionine to produce selenocysteine, which in turn is degraded to hydrogen selenide by the enzyme, $-lyase (Mitchell and Benevenga, 1978). The other pathway is the transamination-decarboxylation pathway. It was estimated that 90% of the methionine is metabolized through this pathway and thus could be the major route also for Semet catabolism. SeMCYS is the predominant selenocompound formed in selenium enriched garlic at relatively low concentrations, but γ-glutamyl-Se methyl selenocystine is the predominant one at high selenium concentrations (Dong et al, 2001). Even though this glutamyl derivative may be the predominant one, it is hydrolyzed in the intestinal tract and the absorbed SeMCYS cleaved by a lyase to form methylselenol (Dong et al, 2001). Thus, this glutamyl derivative is metabolized like SeMCYS at the tissue level. SeMCYS is converted to methylselenol directly when cleaved by beta-lyase and unlike Semet it cannot be incorporated nonspecifically into proteins. Since SeMCYS can be converted directly to methylselenol, this is presumably the reason it is more efficacious than other forms of selenium.

When rats are injected with selenite, the majority of the selenium is present in tissues as selenocysteine (Olson and Palmer, 1976; Beilstein and Whanger, 1988). As expected, no Semet was found under the conditions of these studies. In contrast to plants, there is no known pathway in animals for synthesis of Semet from inorganic selenium, and thus they must depend upon plant or microbial sources for this selenoamino acid. However, animals can convert Semet to selenocysteine. One day after injection of Semet there is about three times as much Semet as selenocysteine in tissues, but five or more days afterwards the majority (46-57%) of the selenium is present as selenocysteine (Beilstein and Whanger, 1986).

A total of 24 selenoproteins have been identified in eukaryotes (Gladyshev, 2001). These selenoproteins have been subdivided into groups based on the location of selenocysteine in selenoprotein polypeptides. The first group (called glutathione peroxidase, GPX) is the most abundant and includes proteins in which selenocysteine is located in the N-terminal portion of a relatively short functional domain. These include the four GPXs, selenoproteins P, Pb, W, W2, T T2 and BthD (fromDrosophila). The second group of eukaryotic selenoproteins is characterized by the presence of selenocysteine in C-terminal sequences. These include the three thioredoxin reductases and the G-rich protein from Drosophila. Other eukaryotic selenoproteins are currently placed in the third group that consists of the three deiodinase isozymes, selenoproteins R and N, the 15 kDa selenoprotein and selenophosphate synthetase. The four GPXs are located in different parts of tissues and all detoxify to various degrees hydrogen peroxide and fatty acid derived hydroperoxides and thus are considered antioxidant selenoenzymes. The three deiodinases convert thyroxine to triiodothyronine, thus regulating thyroid hormone metabolism. The thioredoxin reductases reduce intramolecular disulfide bonds and, among other reactions, regenerate vitamin C from its oxidized state. These reductases can also affect the redox regulation of a variety of factors, including ribonucleotide reductase, the glucocorticoid receptor and the transcription factors (Holmgren, 2001). Selenophosphate synthetase synthesizes selenophosphate, which is a precursor for the synthesis of selenocysteine.(Mansell and Berry, 2001). The functions of the other selenoproteins have not been definitely identified.

Selenium is present in all eukaryotic selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Gladyshev, 2001). Semet is incorporated randomly in animal proteins in place of methionine. By contrast, the incorporation of selenocysteine into proteins known as selenoproteins is not random. Thus, by contrast to Semet, selenocysteine does not randomly substitute for cysteine. In fact, selenocysteine has it own triplet code (UGA) and is considered to be the 21st genetically coded amino acid. Interestingly, UGA has a dual role in the genetic code, serving as a signal for termination and also a codon for selenocysteine. Whether it serves as a stop codon or encodes selenocysteine depends upon the location of what is called the selenocysteine insertion sequence (Mansell and Berry, 2001).

A number of reviews have been written on the chemopreventive effects of selenium including most recently those by Combs and Gray (1998), Ganther (1999), Ip (1998), Schrauzer (2000), El-Bayoumy (2001) and Fleming et al (2001). The mechanism for selenium as an anticarcinogenic element is not known but several speculations have been advanced. It is well established that the most effective dose of selenium for cancer protection is at elevated levels, often called supernutritional or pharmacological levels. The suggested mechanisms for cancer prevention by selenium include its effects upon cell cycle (called apoptosis, probably the most accepted possibility), its role in selenoenzymes, its effects upon carcinogen metabolism, its effects upon the immune system, and its specific inhibition of tumor cell growth by certain selenium metabolites.





IV. Epidemiological studies

There have been a number of epidemiological studies in the United States and throughout the world on the relationship between selenium and cancer. Shamberger and Frost (1969) reported that the selenium status of humans may be inversely related to the risk of some kinds of cancer. Two years later, Shamberger and Willis (1971) in more extensive studies indicated that the mortality due to lymphomas and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, and breast were lower for men and women residing in areas of the United States that have high concentrations of selenium in forage crops than those residing in areas with low selenium content in the forages. Those studies were supported by a later analysis of colorectal cancer mortality using the same forage data (Clark et al, 1981). A 27-country comparison revealed that total cancer mortality rate and age-corrected mortality due to leukemia and cancers of the colon, rectum, breast, ovary and lung varied inversely with estimated per capita selenium intake (Schrauzer et al, 1977). Similar results were also reported in China, a country where selenium intakes range from deficient to toxic levels (Yu et al, 1985).

Lower selenium levels were found in serum collected from American subjects one to five years prior to diagnosis of cancer as compared to those who remained cancer free during this time (Willett et al, 1983). That association was strongest for gastrointestinal and prostatic cancers. Evidence that low serum selenium is a prediagnostic indicator of higher cancer risk was subsequently shown in studies conducted in Finland (Salonen et al, 1984) and Japan (Ujiie et al, 1998). In additional case-control studies, low serum or plasma selenium were found to be associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer (Glattre et al, 1989), malignant oral cavity lesions (Toma et al, 1991), prostate cancer (Brooks et al, 2001), esophageal and gastric cancers (Mark et al, 2000), cervical cancer mortality rates (Guo et al, 1994) and colorectal adenomas (Russo et al, 1997). A decade long prospective study of selenium status and cancer incidences indicated that initial plasma selenium concentration was inversely related to subsequent risks of both non-melanoma skin cancer and colonic adenomatous polyps (Clark et al, 1993). Patients with plasma selenium levels less than 128 ng/ml (the average normal value) were four times more likely to have one or more adenomatous polyps. An 8-year retrospective case control study in Maryland revealed no significant association of serum selenium level and cancer risk at sites other than the bladder (Helzlsouer et al, 1989), but those with low plasma selenium levels had a 2-fold greater risk of bladder cancer than those with high plasma selenium. In a study with Dutch patients the mean selenium levels were significantly less than that of controls in men, but no differences were found in plasma selenium levels between control women and those with cancer (Kok et al, 1987). No significant associations in three other studies were found between serum selenium concentration and risk to total cancers (Coates et al, 1988) or cancers of the lungs, stomach, or rectum (Nomura et al, 1987 and Kabuto et al, 1994). In other work, significant increases of urinary selenium excretion were found in Mexican women with cervical uterine cancer as compared to controls (Navarrete et al, 2001).

In four studies low toenail selenium values were associated with higher risks of developing cancers of the lung (van den Brandt et al, 1993a), stomach (van den Brandt et al, 1993b), breast (Garland et al, 1995) and prostate (Yoshizawa et al, 1998). In contrast, in four other studies no significant differences were found between cancer cases and controls (Noord et al, 1987, Hunter et al, 1990, Rogers et al, 1991 and Veer et al, 1990). It has been suggested that the reason for those not showing a relationship is because the selenium intakes of most of the subjects tested were below that necessary for protection (Schrauzer, 2000). Obviously these results indicate that many factors must be taken into consideration when evaluating plasma and toenail selenium concentrations in relation to cancer incidence.

V. Human Trials.

In spite of advances in diagnosis and treatment, cancer continues to be a major health burden. With the fear associated with diagnosis of cancer, it is not surprising that the public may have considerable interest in easily implemented measures, such as dietary modification or use of vitamin and trace element supplementation for cancer prevention. Promising results have been obtained, however, to indicate that selenium supplementation is effective in reduction of cancer in humans.

There have been six trials conducted on the effects of selenium supplementation on the incidence of cancer or biomarkers in humans and all of them have shown positive effects of selenium. Three of these were conducted in China and one each in India, Italy and in the United States. The first human intervention trial to prevent cancer with selenium in humans was conducted in Qidong, a region north of Shanghai, China, with a high incidence of primary liver cancer (PLC). Subjects were given table salt fortified with 15 ppm selenium as sodium selenite which provided about 30 to 50 micrograms selenium daily for eight years (Yu et al, 1991, 1997). This resulted in a drop of the PLC incidence to almost one-half (27.2 per 100,000 populations versus 50.4 per 100,000 populations consuming ordinary salt). Upon withdrawal of selenium from the treated group, the PLC incidence began to rise. In a separate study, risk populations receiving selenite salt as a source of selenium also showed a significant reduction in the incidence rate of viral infectious hepatitis, a major predisposing PLC risk factor in this region (Yu et al, 1989). The selenium fortified salt was distributed to the general population of 20,800 persons. Six neighboring townships served as controls and were given normal table salt.

In a second trial, members of families at risk of PLC were either given 200 micrograms selenium daily in the form of high-selenium yeast or a placebo (Yu et al, 1997). During the 2-year study period, 1.26% of the controls developed PLC versus 0.69% in those given selenium enriched yeast. Furthermore, of 226 Hepatitis B surface antigen carriers, seven of 113 subjects in the placebo group developed PLC during four years as opposed to no cases in those taking selenium enriched yeast.

A third human trial on the effects of selenium on cancer was also conducted in China with 3,698 subjects. This intervention trial was conducted from 1984 to 1991 in Linxian, China, a rural county in Henan Province, where the mortalities from esophageal cancer are among the highest in the world (Blot et al, 1993). The results indicated that a treatment containing selenium (50 micrograms Se/day as Se enriched yeast plus vitamin E and $-carotene) produced a modest protective effect against esophageal and stomach cancer mortality among subjects in the general population (Li et al, 1993; Taylor et al, 1994; Blot et al, 1995). Probably the reason for only a modest reduction of cancer by selenium is because only 50 micrograms were given daily in contrast to other studies where up to 200 micrograms were given per day.

In the study conducted in India, 298 subjects were used. One-half of the subjects with precancerous lesions in the oral cavity were supplemented with a mixture of four nutrients [vitamin A, riboflavin, zinc and selenium (100 micrograms daily for six months and 50 micrograms the final six months as selenium enriched yeast)] and compared to controls (also 149 patients) receiving placebos (Prasad et al, 1995). The frequency of micronuclei and DNA adducts were significantly reduced in the supplemented groups at the end of the one year study. The adducts decreased by 95% in subjects taking selenium with all categories of lesions and by 72% in subjects without lesions. No such effects were noted in the placebo group.

In the Italian study subjects were given a mixture called ‘Bio-selenium’ which provided 200 micrograms selenium as L-selenomethionine daily plus zinc and vitamins A, C and E for five years, and compared to those taking a placebo (Bonelli et al, 1998). A total of 304 patients participated in this study and the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel evaluated. Patients with prior resected adenomatous polyps were used in a randomized trial and new adenomatous polyps were noted. The observed incidence of metachronous adenomas was 5.6% in the group given the ‘Bio-selenium’ mixture versus 11% in the placebo group.

One of the most exciting clinical trials on selenium and cancer in humans was conducted in the United States. A simple experimental design in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 1312 older Americans with histories of basal and/or squamous cell carcinomas of the skin were used (Clark et al, 1996, 1998). The use of a daily oral supplement of selenium enriched yeast (200 µg Se/day) did not affect the risk of recurrent skin cancers. However, supplementation with selenium as selenium enriched yeast reduced the incidence of lung, colon and prostate cancers respectively by 46, 58 and 64%. Restricting the analysis to the 843 patients with initially normal levels of prostate specific antigen, only four cases were diagnosed with cancer in the selenium treated group but 16 cases were diagnosed in the placebo group after a 2-year treatment lag (Clark et al, 1998). Even though Clark et al (1996) did not observe any effect of selenium on skin cancer in their study, the results strongly indicated that other types of skin disorders may be reduced by selenium.

The author is aware of at least three human trials [two in the United States (University of Arizona; and the SELECT trial at NCI; Klein et al, 2001), and one in Europe (PRECISE, Rayman, 2000)] presently under way to confirm the results of this American investigation.

Finally, in another trial, topical application of Semet was effective in protecting against acute ultraviolet irradiation damage to skin of humans (Burke et al, 1992a). Maximal protection appeared to be attained at concentrations between 0.02% and 0.05%.[1][1]

VI. Selenium and tumors in small animals.

There have been more than 100 trials conducted with small animals on the relationship of tumor incidences to selenium status (Combs and Combs, 1986b; Combs and Gray, 1998). Interestingly, the first evidence that selenium may counteract tumors was presented in 1949 where the addition of selenium to a diet for rats significantly reduced tumors caused by ingestion of an azo dye (Clayton and Bauman, 1949). These results were ignored even by these researchers because of the negative image selenium held at that time. The first evidence of the essentiality of selenium was presented in 1957 (Schwarz and Foltz, 1957), at which time selenium was considered a carcinogenic element. A number of reviews on selenium and carcinogensis in animals have been presented which include those by Milner (1985), Ip and Medina (1987) Medina and Morrison (1988) and Whanger (1992). The chemical carcinogens used to produce tumors in liver, mammary gland, colon, skin, lungs, trachea, pancreas and stomach have been summarized (Whanger, 1992). Two thirds of the animal studies showed significant reductions by selenium in the tumor incidence with one-half showing reductions of 50% or more (Combs and Gray, 1998). In the majority of those studies selenium as selenite was used but that may not have been the most effective form (as noted later) to use. Those results with animals and the epidemiological surveys showing a positive relationship between selenium and cancer incidence were the main motivating factors for conducting human trials.

VII. Tissue cultures.

The present research efforts are primarily focused on the mechanism of cancer reduction by selenium and tissue cultures have been used advantageously to study how tumors are reduced by this element. Research with these cultures also indicates that the beta-lyase mediated production of a monomethylated selenium metabolite, namely methylselenol, from SeMCYS is a key step in cancer chemoprevention by this agent (Ip et al, 2000b). In order for SeMCYS to be effective, cells must possess this beta-lyase. One way to get around this is to use methylselenic acid, which is even effective in cells without this lyase. Although several possibilities have been suggested (Combs and Gray, 1998), the evidence indicates that the likely mechanism in which selenium reduces tumors is through its effects upon apoptosis (Unni et al, 2001; Sinha et al, 1999). Methylselenic acid produced a more robust response at one-tenth the concentration of SeMCYS in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in mouse mammary epithelial cells (Ip et al, 2000b). Apparently these cells have low levels of the beta-lyase. Interestingly the distinction between these two compounds disappears in vivo where their cancer chemopreventive efficacies were found to be very similar. The reason for this is because the beta-lyase enzyme is abundant in many tissues and thus the animal has ample capacity to convert SeMCYS to methylselenol.

Work with the mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells indicate that SeMCYS mediates apoptosis by activating one or more caspases (Unni et al, 2001). Of the caspases, caspase-3 activity appeared to be activated to the greatest extent. Apparently these cells have ample lyases to convert SeMCYS to methylselenol. Further work with these same cells using methylselenic acid produced similar results, providing additional support that monomethylated forms of selenium are the critical effector molecules in selenium mediated growth inhibition in vitro (Sinha et al, 1999). Further research is needed to identify why a monomethylated form of selenium that is required for this effect cannot be fulfilled by other forms of selenium.

VIII. Forms of selenium in foods and supplements.

The efficacy of various selenocompounds using the mammary tumor model has been summarized in Table 1.[2][2] SeMCYS and selenobetaine are the most effective selenocompounds identified thus far against mammary tumorigenesis in animals (table 1). Although selenobetaine is just as effective, SeMCYS is considered to be the most interesting selenocompound because it is the predominant one present in selenium enriched plants such as garlic (Ip et al, 2000a), broccoli florets (Cai et al, 1995) and sprouts (Finley et al, 2001), and onions (Cai et al, 1995). Selenobetaine has never been detected in selenium enriched plants. Therefore, SeMCYS has received the most recent attention as possibly the most useful one for cancer reduction. Except for Semet and selenocystine, the other selenocompounds listed in this table are not present in plants and thus are mostly of academic interest. However, some of them are of therapeutic interest.

Selenobetaine and SeMCYS are good precursors for generating monomethylated selenium (Ip, 1998). Selenobetaine tends to lose a methyl group before scission of the Se-methylene carbon bond to form methylselenol. SeMCYS is converted to methylselenol directly when cleaved by beta-lyase and unlike Semet it cannot be incorporated nonspecifically into proteins. Since these

Table 1. Anticarcinogenic Efficacy of Different Selenium Compounds for reduction of mammary tumors in rats.

Compound Dose of Selenium for 50% Inhibition (ppm)
Se-methylselenocysteine 2
Selenobetaine 2
Selenobetaine methyl ester 2-3
Selenite 3
Selenomethionine 4-5
Selenocystine 4-5
PXSC* 8-10
Triphenylselenonium 10-12
Dimethylselenoxide >10
Trimethylselenonium (No effect at 80 ppm)

*1,4-phenylene bis (methylene) selenocyanate

Data taken from Ip and Ganther, 1993 and Ip et al, 1994a, 1994b.


selenocompounds can be converted directly to methylselenol, this is presumably the reason they are more efficacious than other forms of selenium. Dimethylselenoxide

and selenobetaine methyl ester are converted to dimethylselenide but are less effective for reduction of tumors (Ip, 1998). Trimethylselenonium is essentially not effective in tumor reduction. Thus, there is a negative correlation between the effectiveness of these selenocompounds and the degree of methylation.

Even though Semet is effective against mammary tumors, one disadvantage is that it can be incorporated directly into general proteins instead of converted to compounds which most effectively reduce tumors (Ip, 1998). When this occurs its efficacy for tumor reduction is reduced. For example, when a low methionine diet is fed there is significant reduction in the protective effect of Semet even though the tissue selenium was actually higher in animals as compared to those given an adequate amount of methionine (Ip, 1988). When methionine is limiting, a greater percentage of Semet is incorporated nonspecifically into body proteins in place of methionine because the methionine-tRNA cannot distinguish between methionine and Semet. Feeding diets with Semet to animals as the main selenium source will result in greater tissue accumulation of selenium than other forms of selenium (Ip and Lisk, 1994; Whanger and Butler, 1989). It is not known whether this stored selenium can serve as a reserved pool of this element but the evidence indicates that it is metabolically active (Waschulewski and Sunde, 1988).

With the knowledge of the effects of these selenocompounds as anticarcinogenic agents, it was of interest to investigate the most appropriate methods for delivery to the general population. One obvious approach was to investigate additional methods for expeditious ways to deliver these protective agents through the food system. One strategy in this direction was the investigation of enriching garlic with selenium (Ip et al, 1992). The addition of selenium enriched garlic to yield three micrograms selenium per gram diet significantly reduced the mammary tumor incidence in rats from 83% to 33%. Similar to garlic, selenium enriched broccoli also reduced mammary tumors from 90% to 37% (Finley et al, 2001).

Selenium enriched garlic was shown to be twice as effective as selenium enriched yeast in the reduction of mammary tumors (table 2). The total number of tumors as well as the incidence of tumors was reduced to a greater extent by enriched garlic than enriched yeast. Chemical speciation of selenium in these two products indicated that Semet was the predominant form of selenium in enriched yeast whereas SeMCYS (as the glutamyl derivative) was the predominant form of selenium in enriched garlic (Ip et al, 2000a). The glutamyl derivative is considered a carrier of SeMCYS and both of these compounds were shown to be equally effective in the reduction of mammary tumors (Dong et al, 2001). These results are consistent with those in table 1 where SeMCYS was more effective than Semet for reduction of mammary tumors. The chemical composition of selenocompounds in these two sources of selenium is apparently responsible for this difference in efficacy.

Using another model, selenium enriched broccoli florets (Finley et al, 2000; 2001; Finley and Davis, 2001) as well as enriched broccoli sprouts (Finley et al, 2001) significantly reduced colon tumors in rats. This is intriguing because colon cancer is the third most common newly diagnosed cancer in the United States, resulting in about 55,000 deaths per year due to this type of cancer (American Cancer Society, 2000).

Table 2. Mammary Cancer Prevention by Selenium enriched Garlic or Selenium enriched Yeast in the DMBA and MNU Models

Model Treatment Dietary Selenium (µg/g) Tumor Incidence Total number of Tumors Percentage inhibitiona
DMBA none Se-garlic Se-yeast 0.1 3.0 3.0 26/30 11/30b 19/30c 74 25b 49c 66 34
MNU none Se-garlic Se-yeast 0.1 3.0 3.0 28/30 10/30b 20/30c 80 24b 55c 70 31

a Calculated based on total tumor yield data.

bP < 0.05, compared to the corresponding Se-yeast group.

cP < 0.05, compared to the corresponding control group.

DMBA = dimethylbenz [a] anthracene; MNU = Methylnitrosourea

Taken from Ip et al, 2000a


Selenium enriched broccoli was more effective than selenite, selenate or Semet in the reduction of induced colon carcinogenesis (Feng et al, 1999 and Davis et al, 1999). In contrast, selenite, selenate and Semet were more effective for induction of GPX activity than selenium enriched broccoli (Finley and Davis, 2001). This indicates that the plant converts the selenium to more effective forms for reduction of these tumors and these results emphasize the need to study the effects of selenium in food forms.

Similar to chemically induced colon tumors there were significantly fewer intestinal tumors when mice which have a genetic defect for development of intestinal tumors were fed selenium enriched broccoli (Davis et al, 2002). These results along with data above indicate that selenium enriched broccoli is effective against both chemically and genetically induced intestinal tumors. Data from work with another strain of mice which develop spontaneous intestinal tumors is consistent with these results where selenium deficiency resulted in activation of genes involved in DNA damage (Rao et al, 2001).

IX. Level of selenium necessary for nutritive benefit

The Chinese data have been used almost exclusively to establish the required levels of selenium for nutritive benefit as well as to establish the safe levels for humans (Yang et al, 1989b; Yang and Zhou, 1994). It is fortunate to have a country like China where areas vary from deficient to toxic levels of selenium, and this has made it convenient to collect critical information on the metabolism and effects of various levels of selenium in humans. Significant correlations have been found between daily selenium intake and selenium content of whole blood, plasma, breast milk, and 24 hour urine (Yang et al, 1989a). Highly significant correlations were also found between levels of whole blood selenium and hair selenium, fingernail selenium and toenail selenium, hair selenium and fingernail or toenail selenium, and whole blood selenium and toenail or fingernail selenium. Morphological changes in fingernails were used as the main criterion for clinical diagnosis of selenosis (Yang et al, 1989b). The fingernail changes and loss of hair are the main signs of excess selenium intakes. With excess selenium intakes, the fingernails become brittle and are easily cracked. The data collected on Chinese subjects are summarized in table 3.

An intake of nearly 5 mg of selenium resulted in definite occurrence of selenosis, characterized by hair and nail losses. One suggested reason the subjects were able to tolerate this high level of selenium is because they consumed a high fiber diet. The low adverse effect level of dietary selenium was calculated to range between 1540 and 1600 micrograms daily. However, some effects were noted in individuals with a daily intake of 900 micrograms. The maximum safe dietary selenium intake was calculated to be about 800 micrograms per day, but there were some individuals where an amount of 600 micrograms per day was the maximum safe intake. In order to provide a safety factor, the maximum safe dietary selenium intake was suggested as 400 micrograms per day. A level of about 40 micrograms daily was suggested as the minimum requirement, and an intake of less than 11 micrograms daily will definitely result in deficiency problems. Deficiency of selenium in humans results in a cardiac and muscular disorder called Keshan disease, and deficiency of selenium is thought to be one of the contributing factors to another disorder called Kaschin-Beck disease.

Table 3. Health Effects of Various Levels of Dietary Selenium Intakes

Average AduIt Dietary

Selenium Intakes

(µg/d) (µg/KgBW) Forms Effects on Human Health


*4990 ± 1349 90 Cereal-based plant diet Occurrence of selenosis with hair & nail loss

in seleniferous area

*1660 30 Cereal-based plant diet Adverse effect level (AEL) of dietary Se intake

in seleniferous area

*1540 ± 653 28 Cereal-based plant diet Low adverse effect level of dietary Se intake

in seleniferous area (mean LOAEL)

*×900 17 Cereal-based plant diet Individual low level causes toxicity

in seleniferous area (individual LOAEL)

*819 ± 129 15 Cereal-based plant diet Maximum safe dietary Se intake

in seleniferous atea (NOAEL, mean)

*600 11 Cereal-based plant diet Individual maximum safe dietary Se intake

in seleniferous atea (NOAEL, individual)

400 – Natural Diet Suggested maximum safe dietary Se intake

40 0.7 75% of dietary Se from Suggested adequate dietary Se requirement


< 11 < 0.2 Cereal-based plant diet Prevalence of Keshan disease and

in Keshan disease area Kaschin-Beck disease

*Calculated by regression equation.

Data modified from: Yang and Zhou (1994). .


X. Conclusion.

The RDA for selenium is 55 micrograms for healthy adults, with 40 micrograms selenium as the minimum requirement. Less than 11 micrograms selenium will definitely put people at risk of deficiency that would be expected to cause damage. Daily doses of 100 to 200 micrograms

selenium inhibit genetic damage and cancer development in humans. About 400 micrograms

selenium per day is considered an upper safe limit. Clearly doses above the RDA are needed to

inhibit genetic damage and cancer. Despite concerns about the toxicity of higher dietary levels of selenium, humans consuming up to 600 micrograms of selenium daily appear to have no adverse clinical symptoms.[3][3]

Both animal and human data indicate that more than 100 and up to 200 micrograms of selenium are necessary for greatest reduction of cancer. This is because a methylated form of selenium is necessary for maximum reduction of cancer, and the methylated forms are present at highest levels with elevated intakes of this element. In most human trials, the subjects were supplemented with 200 micrograms selenium per day and in trials where only 50 micrograms were supplemented there was not as much reduction of cancer. Therefore, the selenium requirement for maximum reduction of cancer appears to be at least four times the RDA. However, since only 50 to 200 micrograms additional selenium have been used, it is not possible to indicate which level will give maximum protection. For example, it is not known whether supplemental levels of selenium above 200 micrograms daily will provide any additional protection against cancer.

Selenium enriched yeast is the most common source of selenium available commercially and it also has been the most used selenium source in human trials. Semet is the major form in enriched yeast but SeMCYS is the predominant form in enriched plants such as garlic and broccoli. Selenium enriched garlic was shown to be twice as effective as enriched yeast in reduction of mammary tumors in rats. Apparently, the reason SeMCYS is more effective is because it is converted directly to methylselenol, the suspected biologically active form of selenium for reduction of tumors. However, it is not known whether providing twice as much selenium as enriched yeast will give the same benefits as enriched garlic. Therefore, in addition to enriched yeast, selenium enriched food plants such garlic, broccoli and onions appear also to be an effective and safe method for delivery of selenium to the general population. Nevertheless, regardless of the source of selenium it is apparent that additional intakes of this element by humans will reduce the incidence of cancer.

It has been estimated that one-third of the cancers in humans are environmentally related. The results in this report indicate that on an average there could be 50% reduction of cancer through increased selenium ingestion in humans. If the 50,000 deaths due to colorectal cancer, the 41,800 deaths due to prostate cancer in men, or the 43,300 breast cancer deaths in women could be reduced by one-half with selenium, this would be a very significant contribution to human health.


Phil D. Whanger

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology

Oregon State University

A copy of my curriculum vitae is attached




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[1][1] These results are consistent with some animal data. Hairless mice treated by topical application of selenomethionine (0.02%) or given drinking water with 1.5 micrograms selenium per ml as selenomethionine had significantly less skin damage due to ultraviolet irradiation (Burke et al, 1992b). This is consistent with an earlier study which indicated that dietary selenium (one microgram/g) fed to mice significantly reduced the number of skin tumors induced by two carcinogenic chemicals plus croton oil (Shamberger, 1970).

[2][2] The incidence of breast cancer is greatest of all cancers in women but it is the third highest cause of all cancer deaths (American Cancer Society, 2000), probably reflecting the improved methods for detecting and treatment of breast cancer compared to other cancers . Although usually not mentioned, a small number of men develop breast cancer with even some deaths. About 400 men die of breast cancer each year compared to 43,300 breast cancer deaths in women.

[3][3] The author is aware of a person who consumed one mg of selenium for two years before toxic signs of selenium occurred. Thus this element appears not as toxic as often believed.




Selenium also helps stop damaged DNA molecules from reproducing. In other words, selenium acts to prevent tumors from developing. “It contributes towards the death of cancerous and pre-cancer cells. Their death appears to occur before they replicate, thus helping stop cancer before it gets started,” says Dr. James Howenstine in A Physician’s Guide to Natural Health Products That Work.

In addition to preventing the onset of the disease, selenium has also been shown to aid in slowing cancer’s progression in patients that already have it. According to the Life Extension Foundation, the use of selenium during chemotherapy in combination with vitamin A and vitamin E can reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs. The mineral also helps “enhance the effectiveness of chemo, radiation, and hyperthermia while minimizing damage to the patient’s normal cells; thus making therapy more of a ‘selective toxin,'” says Patrick Quillin in Beating Cancer with Nutrition.

A 1996 study by Dr. Larry Clark of the University of Arizona showed just how effective selenium can be in protecting against cancer. In the study of 1,300 older people, the occurrence of cancer among those who took 200 micrograms of selenium daily for about seven years was reduced by 42 percent compared to those given a placebo. Cancer deaths for those taking the selenium were cut almost in half, according to the study that was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

While the study concluded the mineral helped protect against all types of cancer, it had particularly powerful impacts on prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. Jean Carper, in Miracle Cures, called Dr. Clark’s findings an “unprecedented cancer intervention study” that “bumped up the respectability of using supplements against cancer several notches.”

Accordingly, geography can have a significant impact on diet. In Antioxidants Against Cancer, author Ralph Moss PhD, says one theory for why cancer rates are so high in Linxian, China, dubbed “the ‘world capital’ of cancer,” is that the soil is deficient in the essential minerals selenium and zinc. In Earl Mindell’s Supplement Bible, Earl Mindell RPh PhD, suggests part of the reason American men are five times more likely than Japanese men to die from prostate cancer could be because, in general, “the Asian diet contains four times the amount of selenium as the average American diet.”